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HALTERN Kr.Recklinghausen, Land Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany.

Several Roman fortifications dating to the earliest period of the occupation under Augustus: 1) the so-called field camp (Feldlager), 2) the great camp (Grosses Lager), 3) the fortlet St. Annaberg, 4) the fortified harbor installations (Uferkastelle). They lie on the NW bank of the Lippe, just over 50 km from the main legionary base at Xanten (Birten)— Vetera on the Rhine. All the installations at Haltern had defenses of earth and timber and wooden buildings inside.

The field camp was probably the earliest. Its area of 36 ha could probably accommodate two legions, but it was in use for only a short time. It was soon replaced by a permanent fortress of 20 ha, large enough to accommodate a legion. Over the years much of the interior of this fortress has been stripped and examined, but by no means all of it. The principia and praetorium, a valetudinarium, and various barrack blocks are known. As at Oberaden, one must assume that this fortress was in use for many years. From time to time a complete legion (which was otherwise on duty on the Rhine) may have been stationed here. But sometimes only large detachments of legions or auxiliary units were in occupation and changed often according to the needs of the military situation. It is not known whether the small fortlet on the St. Annaberg belongs to the same period as the field camp. Measuring 6.7 ha in extent, it lies ca. 1.5 km SW of the field camp and the great camp on a hill that governed the plan of its defenses. Its purpose is not at all clear. The harbor installations lie not far E of the field camp and the great camp on an old tributary of the Lippe. They show evidence of several building phases, of which the majority can be dated to the same period as the great camp.

The finds from Haltern—particularly the “Italian” terra sigillata—suggest that the military installations were erected later than those at Oberaden. It is possible that they were built a few years after the death of Drusus (9 B.C.) when Oberaden, as a result of military reorganization, had already been given up. To judge from the coins, which shed some light on the end of the occupation, Haltern was evacuated at the time of the reoccupation of the key sites on the right bank of the Rhine after the defeat of Varus in A.D. 9. Haltern cannot, therefore, be the Aliso mentioned by Tacitus (Ann. 2.7).


Mitteilungen der Altertumskommission für Westfalen 5 (1909); Bodenaltertümer Westfalens 6 (1943); K. Kraft, “Das Enddatum des Legionslagers Haltern,” BonnJbb 155-56 (1955-56) 95ff; H. Aschemeyer in Germania: Anzeiger der Römisch-Germanischen Kommission 37 (1957) 287ff; S. v. Schnurbein, “Die römischen Militäranlagen bei Haltern,” Bodenaltertümer Westfalens 14 (1974).

For an area plan see Saalburg-Jahrbuch 19 (1961) 5,2; in general see H. Schönberger, “The Roman Frontier in Germany: an Archaeological Survey,” JRS 59 (1969) 144ff with


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