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IADER (Zadar) Croatia, Yugoslavia.

A settlement on the Zadar Peninsula dating from the 9th c. B.C. Early Greek imports from the end of the 8th c. B.C. have been discovered. In the civil wars between Caesar and Pompey Caesar's naves Iadertinae took part (BAlex. 42). About 33 B.C. the settlement attained colonial rank under Octavian and the rich land was distributed to veterans. The heaps of stone piled at the edges of fields still preserve the orthogonal grid pattern of centuriation visible in the aerial photos. An inscription names Augustus as the “parens coloniae” who donated to the city the walls and towers (CIL III, 13246).

The town had an area of 136 ha enclosed by a circuit wall with three gates. It had a regular street grid of five cardines and more decumani with insulae. Mosaics have been found in the house foundations. The forum was situated in the W corner of peninsula. It was a double precinct (ca. 180 x 130 m) of which the E half was an open market area surrounded by colonnaded porticos with tabernae and shops. The basilica was on the S side. To the W was a sacred precinct peribolus with altars and the capitolium on a podium 3 m high. The three-aisled temple had six fluted columns in front. Before the temple stood the altar for sacrifices. Two high columns stood before the precinct. This forum is Iulio-Claudian or possibly Augustan.

The stone paving of the city is found in many places in the town to be from 0.5 to 1.5 m deep. The baths are found in the center of the city.

Outside the city to the E was the amphitheater, destroyed in the 17th c. The necropoleis (1st-4th c.) are to the E. There are many villae rusticae in the environs. The aqueduct brought water from the Vrana lake region 40 km distant. Early Christian remains are few. The town suffered a great cataclysm (earthquake, fire ?) in the 6th c. A.D.

The finds from archaeological excavations are preserved in the Archaeological Museum at Zadar.


V. Brunelli, Stonia della città di Zana, I (1913); M. Suić, “The Limitation of Roman Colonies on the Eastern Adriatic Coast,” Zbornik Instituta za historijske nauke u Zadru 2 (1956-57) 13-50; id., “O imenu Zadra,” Zbornik Zadar (1964).


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