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Forts. A wall of rectangular blocks with some clamps spans the neck of the peninsula of Buthrotum; it was built by a sea power, probably Kerkyra, in the 5th c. to enclose annexed territory (Thuc. 3.85). Small forts nearby at Çuke, Qenurio and Malahuna may be Kerkyrean also. Other small forts at Bençë, Kardhiq, Nivicë Lopes, and Humelicë were probably control posts in the Hellenistic period, while others at Luneçi and Memaliaj by the crossings of the Aous river were control posts on the Roman road. Roughly fortified places of refuge, probably of the Hellenistic period, are at Gardhikaq, Koqino Lithari, Dhrovjan, Pepel, Poliçan, Skorë and Zimnec. A fine fortification of the Hellenistic period at Vagalat controls the entry into an inland plain. None of these were made for permanent habitation. (N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus [1967] Pls. V c, VII b.)

Fortified sites of unknown identity. Usually within a day's walk of the coast they range from Ploçë in the N with a circuit wall exceeding 2 km to Malçan in the S, about half as large. Others are at Borsh and Kalivo. (N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, index, for descriptions and references.)


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    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.85
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