Cilicia Campestris, Turkey.
The probable site, discovered in 1950 at the junction of the old
and new beds of the river Ceyhan (Pyramos), is 29 km
SW of Mopsuestia near modern Kiziltahta. A city coin
type of two river gods swimming in opposite directions
was a useful clue to identification; for while the Ceyhan
now flows E into the Gulf of Issos, the city's port of
Magarsos is almost certainly the walled settlement near
Karataş, at the mouth of the river's original (though now
dry) W course. Near Kiziltahta were found a Roman
bridge, an inscription referring to the city of Mallos, and
very numerous carved blocks in secondary use.
Mallos' claim to Amphilochos, son of Amphiaraos, as
founder was partly substantiated by long and vigorous
tradition and partly by Alexander's remission of tribute
after his conquest of Cilicia in recognition of the city's
Argive origin. For its fidelity to the Seleucid cause, Mallos became Antioch on the Pyramos under Antiochos IV,
but dropped the title in the 2d c. B.C. to enjoy a limited
autonomy. In 67 B.C. it was among the cities settled by
Pompey with ex-pirates, and under the empire piled up
honorific titles to keep up with its rivals. It even engaged
in a ridiculous boundary dispute with Tarsus, metropolis
of Cilicia Prima. It duly became a bishopric, but disappeared from history after the Arab conquest.
; Skylax 102; Arr. Anab. 2.5;
; App. Mith
. 96; Dio Chrys. Or
H. T. Bossert, Belleten
14, 664ff; A.H.M. Jones, Cities
of Eastern Roman Provinces
(2d ed. 1971) 192, 196-97, 199-200, 202, 206-7.