(Minare Köyü) Lycia, Turkey.
17 km N-NW of Xanthos. The site is proved by inscriptions and by the evident survival of the name, of which
the old Lycian form was Pinale. According to Menekrates
of Xanthos (ap. Steph. Byz. s.v. Artymnesos) the name
means “round,” with reference apparently to the rounded
shape of the precipitous hill on which the city originally
stood. A dozen inscriptions in the Lycian language have
been found on the site. Pinara has no recorded history
apart from Menekrates' assertion that it was founded by
colonists from Xanthos, and Arrian's statement that it
surrendered quietly to Alexander. In the Lycian League
Pinara was one of the six-vote cities, and issued coins in
the 2d-1st c. B.C.; no imperial coinage, however, is known.
Bishops of Pinara are recorded down to the end of the
The principal ruins lie in and around a small valley at
the E foot of a hill over 450 m high, whose precipitous
face is honeycombed with the openings of hundreds of
tombs, quite inaccessible without tackle. The only approach was barred by a triple wall of massive masonry.
On the flat but gently sloping summit nothing survives
beyond some rock-cuttings, a few cisterns, and the remains of a fortified citadel at the highest point.
In the lower town, which was never walled, a much
smaller hill forms a second acropolis, covered with the
ruins of buildings now much overgrown; among these,
on the W side, is a small theater or odeum in poor condition. To the NE of this, in the W face of another small
hill, is the principal theater, in excellent preservation but
also badly overgrown. Its plan is purely Greek and seems
never to have been modified in Roman times; it has 27
rows of seats and 10 stairways; there is no diazoma. The
stage building stands to a height of 2 to 4 m, with two
of its doors complete, one leading from the parodos to
the stage. The agora appears to have been situated to the
N of the lower acropolis; here are the ruins of a temple
and a large foundation.
Lycian rock tombs are numerous. Among them the
largest and most remarkable is the so-called Royal Tomb,
a tomb of house type with a porch and an inner grave
chamber. The galls of the porch carry reliefs showing
four Lycian cities (real or imaginary) within whose battlements houses and tombs are visible. Another tomb has
a facade resembling the end of a “Gothic” sarcophagus,
adorned at the summit with a pair of ox's horns.
C. Fellows, Lycia
T.A.B. Spratt & E. Forbes, Travels in Lycia
(1847) I 6-11M
; E. Petersen & F. von Luschan, Reisen in Lykien
(1889) I 47-56MI
11.2 (1930) 185-88.
G. E. BEAN