or Scarabantia (Sopron) Hungary.
A statio 59 km S-SE of Vienna on the important
route that connected the Adriatic Sea with the Danube.
It was on the SW end of Lake Fertö. Pliny (HN 3.146
calls the settlement Oppidum Scarbantia Iulia, which still
belonged to Noricum under Tiberius. The town reached
the rank of municipium under Vespasian (tribus Quirina . . .), at this time it already belonged with its territorium
to Pannonia. With its developed network of streets, its
forum with the Capitolium, its waterworks, its amphitheater, it was one of upper Pannonia's busy commercial
towns from 106, after the division of the province into
two parts. Imperial building projects took place at the
forum under Antonius Pius. Between 167 and 180, during the time of the Quadic-Marcomannic wars, the town
was sacked several times by the enemy; it was rebuilt
afterwards, but did not develop significantly during the
3d c. As a result of the reorganizations during the Tetrarchy, the town's strategic significance came to the fore;
it defended the new capital of Pannonia Prima and the
road to Italy from the N, i.e. it supplied the troops, stationed on the limes, with food and weapons. Under the
Constantinian dynasty an area (250 x 404 m) in the
center of town was surrounded by an elliptically shaped
fortress wall. The stretch of wall (3 m thick and ca. 8 m
high) had 34 horseshoe-shaped bastions, two gates fortified with towers, and several smaller passages. The Passio
S. Quirini mentions a well-populated Early Christian congregation on the territory of Civitas Scarabatensis at the
beginning of the 4th c. Peasant soldiery lived behind the
town walls in the second half of the 4th c. (Not.Dig. occ
34 dux Pann. 1.30). At the beginning of the 5th c. one
of the barbaric groups of the Hun-Alan-Goth triumvirate
lived in the town together with the remaining romanized
families. Their legacy can be traced through the 6th c.
Since the 1950s excavations of Roman architectural
remains have been pursued in the section of town which
has been thickly populated since antiquity. Of these are
to be seen some sections of stone-covered streets, several
rooms of the bath and ruins of its calidarium with hypocaust, the remains of a group of buildings with a portico
which closed in the forum's E side. The outline of the
amphitheater can be traced on a hillside outside the city.
Several sections of the elliptical city wall of the Late
Empire, with a few bastions, were excavated and restored.
The ruins of the N city gate can be seen in a protective
building at the foot of the mediaeval fire-tower; the more
important remains of stone were also placed here.
The Franz Liszt Museum contains the more important
Roman remains, among them carvings, glass and bronze
objects. In the museum's Roman lapidarium are the statues of deities of the Capitolium, altars, a relief of Mithras, tombstones, and carvings from buildings.
F. Kenner, Mitt. d. k. k. Centr. Comm.
(1857) 381; Fluss, Scarbantia, RE
II (1923) 355; K.
Praschniker, Öst. Jahreshefte
30 (1937) 111; A. Radnóti, “Sopron és környéke régészeti emlékei,” Csatkai-Dercsényi Sopron és környéke müemlékei
Mócsy, Die Bevölkerung von Pannonien bis zu den
(1959); L. Barkóczi, Acta Arch.
. 16 (1964) 257ff; S. K. Póczy, Sopron a római
(1966); Soproni Szemle
SZ. K. PÓCZY