(Basiliko) Peloponnesos, Greece.
the Corinthian Gulf about 26 km W of Corinth. Little is
known of the city's earliest history except for close ties
with Argos, which were broken under the Orthagorid
tyrants who ruled it ca. 656-556 B.C. Under Kleisthenes
the city enjoyed its greatest power and prosperity and
supported a flourishing school of painting. After the removal of the tyrants by Sparta, Sikyon became a loyal
member of the Peloponnesian League, until Epaminondas made it the center of Theban power in the Peloponnese after Leuktra in 371 B.C. In the 4th c. B.C. it was again the home of famous painters and sculptors, including Lysippos. Through the efforts of Aratos, the city
joined the Achaian League in 251 B.C. and became a
leading power in the confederacy until 146 B.C. Following the destruction of Corinth, Sikyon for a time supervised the Isthmian Games but after the Romans had exacted a large public debt in 56 B.C. and disastrous
earthquakes had struck in the 2d c., the city was reduced
to the half-ruined and depopulated condition in which
Pausanias found it ca. A.D. 160.
Old Sikyon lay in the plain near its port on the Corinthian Gulf, at modern Kiato, but in 303 B.C. Demetrios
Poliorketes moved it to the two lofty plateaus of the
acropolis, which lie ca. 4 km inland. On the upper terrace was the acropolis proper, while the lower terrace,
now partly occupied by the village of Basiliko, was the
site of the agora, several public buildings, and private
houses. The natural strength of the site, which is surrounded by deep ravines cut by the Asopos and Helisson
rivers, was increased by a stone circuit wall, traces of
which survive. Another massive wall separates the acropolis from the lower terrace.
On the acropolis Pausanias (2.7.5
) records Sanctuaries
of Tyche Akraia and the Dioskouroi. Probably to be
associated with the former are some meager foundations
and a colossal marble head of Tyche, in the Sikyon
Museum, which is a Roman copy of the famous Tyche
of Antioch by Eutychides of Sikyon. Cut into the N and
NE slopes of the acropolis are the seats of a large, unexcavated stadium and the cavea of the theater, partly excavated. Built probably in the early 3d c. B.C. and repaired at least twice in Roman times, the theater is one of the
largest on the Greek mainland. Of interest are its vaulted
entrances to the lower diazoma and a Doric colonnade
behind the stage building which faces N and terminates in
a fountain-house at the W and at the E in a large, rectangular room. Slight traces of an adjacent temple, possibly that of Dionysos (Paus. 2.7.5
), were seen by Leake but are no longer visible.
Excavations have revealed several important public and
sacred buildings to the SE and below the theater. Here
lies the gymnasium, a square structure of the 3d c. B.C.,
which is built on two levels. An open court on the lower
level is framed on three sides by an Ionic colonnade with
rooms opening off it; around three sides of the upper
court is a simple Doric colonnade, repaired in Roman
times. Two fountain-houses lie on the lower level, built
into the retaining wall that separates the two terraces.
Near the W side of the gymnasium is a spring in a small
rock Sanctuary of the Nymphs.
In the agora, which lies to the SE of the gymnasium,
is the bouleuterion, a square hypostyle hall of Ionic columns built in the 3d c. B.C. and later transformed into
a Roman bath. It opens onto the agora on the N and is
separated by a road on the E from a long Doric stoa,
perhaps of the 2d c. B.C., which formed the S edge of
the agora. Behind a double colonnade of 45 x 22 columns
the stoa contained a row of 21 shops, only the foundations
of which are preserved. The rest of the agora is still to
be excavated, with the exception of the foundations of
a long, narrow temple on the W side. Constructed in the
archaic period, the temple was renovated in Hellenistic
times and later converted into a Christian church. Its
identification is uncertain: the excavators suggest Artemis, but Roux's suggestion that it was the Temple of
Apollo described by Pausanias (2.7.8
) as being in the
agora is attractive. A colossal statue of Attalos I, who
was a great favorite at Sikyon, stood beside the temple
A large and well-preserved Roman bath of the 2d or
3d c. lies to the N of the agora and has been partly
restored to serve as a museum and storehouse for the
finds from the Greek excavations. Remains of walls running in straight lines for considerable distances and intersecting at right angles are visible on the surface of the lower terrace. They indicate that the new city of Demetrios was laid out on a grid pattern.
On the low hill of Haghia Paraskevi near the ancient
port a Christian basilica has been excavated which is
constructed of blocks reused from a Classical temple.
It is possible that the source of this material was the
Temple of Athena reported by Pausanias (2.5.6
standing on the acropolis of the archaic city.
Attested at Sikyon by Pausanias and other authors are
the shrine and grave of Aratos, Stoas of Kleisthenes and
Lamia (Painted Stoa), and Sanctuaries of Apollo Lykios,
Herakles, Asklepios, Aphrodite, Artemis, and Demeter;
none of these has yet come to light.
N. Philadelphus, BCH
50 (1926) 175-82PI
; C. H. Skalet, Ancient Sikyon
; E. v.
Fiechter, Das Theater in Sikyon
; A. K. Orlandos, “La Fontaine de Sicyone,” AJA
38 (1934) 153-57PI
; id., Praktika
(1932-44 & 1951-54)PI
; G. Roux, Pausanias en Corinthie
; J. Delorme, Gymnasion
; L. Guerrini, EAA
VII (1966) 276-79PI