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TERGESTUM (Trieste) Italy.

A settlement, probably founded by the Veneti and heavily damaged by the Giapidi in 52 B.C. A Roman colony was founded there either by Julius Caesar in 46 B.C. or in 42-41 by the Triumviri after the battle of Filippi.

The colony's strategic importance is indicated by its walls. Made of sandstone blocks, they encircled the city, following the descent from the hill toward the sea. Inside traces of the right-angled urban establishment are preserved. One gate survives, the so-called Arco di Riccardo. It is on the decumanus, is built of Sistiana stone, and is the city's oldest monument.

The city developed commercially, being the point of departure for both Nauporto and the towns along the Danube. Later, at the time of Vespasian, it was linked to the Istrian centers on the Via Flavia.

During the long period of the Pax Romana, that is from Augustus to the first barbarian skirmishes, the city spread outside the walls with beautiful villas of great archaeological interest. Inside the walls the monumental buildings multiplied.

An Early Christian basilica has been discovered under the cathedral dedicated to S. Giusto. It is rectangular in form and dates from the first half of the 5th c. It was adapted from a Roman temple constructed in the age of Domitian and perhaps restored by Hadrian or by Antoninus Pius. One entered the temple from a propylon of Hellenistic type, perhaps the only example of its kind in N Italy. It was probably built by P. Palpellius Clodius Quirinalis, retired prefect of the Ravenna fleet, ca. A.D. 80 (CIL V, 533). Before the temple stood an equestrian monument, dedicated to C. Calpentanus Ranzius Quirinalis Valerius Festus, vice consul in A.D. 71 (CIL V, 531).

To the N of the temple opened the forum, connected by a portico with the large civil basilica, divided into three naves with an internal apse. The donor was Q. Baienus Blassianus (1.1. 10.4.37-40), procurator of Trajan before A.D. 120-125.

Also from the age of Trajan is the beautiful theater in the Greek style, with a single balcony and two loggias superimposed on it. The scena was ornamented by many votive statues in marble which constitute a notable body of sculpture of the so-called cult type from the 2d c. A.D. Represented are Athena, Knidia, Asklepios, Apollo, and Hygieia.

The aqueduct of Rosandra is still partly preserved.

During the last ten years a succession of Early Christian buildings have been discovered in the center of the old city.

It is probable that Trieste remained outside the routes of the invasions that in the 6th c. destroyed Aquileia, and that it continued to enjoy a tranquil life until the beginning of the mediaeval period.

Besides the monuments cited, Trieste is rich in museums. The Civic Museum of History and Art deserves special mention. Besides the public collections there are numerous private collections of varying interest and importance.


A. Tamaro, Storia di Trieste (1924); F. Farolfi, “L'Arco romano detto di Riccardo,” Archeografo triestino 3, 21 (1936); V. Macchioro, “Le statue del teatro romano di Trieste,” Rivista della città di Trieste (1938); V. Scrinari, Tergeste (1951); A. Degrassi, Il confine nord-orientale dell'ltalia romana (1954); B. F. Forlati, “Il Veneto orientale,” Arte e Civilità romana dell' Italia settentrionale (1964); “La Basilica romana di Trieste sul Colle di S. Giusto,” in Istituto Lombardo Scienze e Lettere 103 (1969); M. M. Roberti, EAA (1971) s.v. S. Giusto,


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