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TUDER (Todi) Umbria, Italy.

A site on the left bank of the Tiber at the confluence of the Naia, served in Roman times principally by the Via Amenina. Grave goods show that this city, which inscribed its coins TVTERE, early prospered as a middleman between the Etruscans and Umbrians. Fine bronzes of the 6th c., Attic cups, and bucchero appear. In the Hellenistic period its wealth increased. The city must have come under Rome in the 3d c.; in 89 B.C. it was inscribed in the tribus Clustumina and under the triumvirate received the colonia Julia Fida Tuder.

The walls are in two circuits, one enclosing the hilltop and an extension around the S and E fronts; the work in both is very similar. There are no towers, but a sewer in one stretch, evidently original, is nicely engineered and vaulted. If they are not of the Roman colony, they can be not much earlier.

The forum has been located under Piazza del Popolo, but the city plan is elusive. There are poor remains of a theater and amphitheater and a number of cisterns and miscellaneous finds. The pride of Todi is an ancient terrace wall in Piazza del Mercato Vecchio in which open four beautiful half-domed niches. Above the crown of these runs a Doric frieze under a row of dentils. The date must be mid 1st c. B.C.

There is an archaeological museum in Palazzo del Capitano and tomb groups in the Museo Archeologico in Florence and the Villa Giulia in Rome. The Late Classical Mars of Todi is in the Vatican's Museo Gregoriano.


Forma Italiae VII.1 Tuder-Carsulae (1938) (G. Becatti)MPI; EAA 7 (1966) 893-95 (U. Ciotti).


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