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TYRAS (Belgorod Dnestrovskii) Ukraine.

A Greek city on the W bank of the Dniester liman near Belgorod-Dnestrovskii. It is mentioned in ancient sources (Strab. 7.3.16; Ptol. 3.10.8; Ps. Skyl. 68; Steph. Byz. and Anon. Peripl. 88.62). Founded in the 6th c. B.C., it was destroyed by the Getae in the mid 1st c. B.C. The city recovered, was replanned, and was destroyed again ca. 240 A.D., probably by the Goths.

Excavation has been hampered by thick mediaeval strata, but there are remains of buildings with cellars from the 4th c. B.C. and some dwellings of later eras. Parts of an ancient defensive wall with a circular tower (probably 2d c. A.D.) have been excavated, and from the same century a broad street with rows of houses on either side. During this period Legio I Italica was stationed in Tyras as well as Legio V Macedonia and Legio XI Claudia.

Pottery is represented by Ionian wares from the 6th c. B.C. and red-figured Attic wares from the 5th c. From the 3d c. B.C. on, relief wares from Asia Minor predominate. The city minted its own coins from 360 B.C. The Hermitage and Kiev Museums contain material from the site.


E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks (1913) 445-49; C. M. Danoff, Pontos Euxeinos (1962) 1091-92 = RE Suppl. IX; A. I. Furmanskaia, “Antichnyi gorod Tira,” Antichnyi gorod (1963) 40-50; E. Belin de Ballu, L'Histoire des Colonies grecques du Littoral nord de la Mer Noire (1965) 38-41; I. B. Braşinskij, “Recherches soviétiques sun les monuments antiques des régions de la Mer Noire,” Eirene 7 (1968) 82-83.


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