(Helleniko) W Lokris, Greece.
ancient acropolis NW of Naupaktos at the summit of a
hill (510 m) between the towns of Haghios Georgios
The long, narrow acropolis, oriented N-S, was uncovered in 1924. It is surrounded by a continuous wall
without corners or towers, built of massive blocks, roughly fitted into an irregular isodomic masonry, and preserved from the foundations to a height of 1.50 m. The area inside the wall, approached along the even N and S
slopes of the hill, forms two levels. On the lower one to
the N have been uncovered the more siguificant remains
of the acropolis: a temple, with a stoa to the N of it.
The temple, oriented NW-SE, was erected on a three-stepped krepidoma resting on the euthynteria (0.295 m high) which is for the most part visible. The krepidoma (31.45 x 14.37 m) was found virtually intact. It was
carefully worked and shows drafting on the vertical
joints of the blocks, and also a double block system in
the stylobate arranged so that each column rests on every
second block, and on the middle of the block rather
than on the joint. Owing to these two features and the
number of the columns in the peristyle (6 x 13), the
temple is dated to the 4th c. B.C. or a little later. From
the superstructure were found only a half column drum
and a corner triglyph. A careful examination of the
foundations revealed the plan of the temple, which was
peristyle and distyle in antis with a pronaos and opisthodomos (3.25 m deep) and with an inner colonnade along the walls of the cella. It was noted that in
the foundations poros architectural fragments from an
earlier building were used, perhaps from a preexistent
temple. Poorly built foundations of unknown purpose
were found along the front of the temple. The foundations (38.80 x 11.40 m) of a double stoa were found parallel to the axis of the temple and to the N of it.
Here were found bases supporting square pillars. The
thinness of the walls and their poor construction are,
according to the excavator, evidence of the temporary
character of the building, which may have been a workshop.
On the upper level of the hill were found the irregularly constructed foundations (11 x 16 m) of a rectangular building, surrounding another rectangle. Here was also found a cubical stone foundation (altar?) to the N
of which was uncovered a third building. All of these
are of unknown purpose.
Outside the walls there are remains of buildings and
tombs visible on the N side of the acropolis as well as a
large circular cistern built of large blocks to the S, which
possibly belonged to a habitation situated near there.
The acropolis is actually identified by the most reliable scholars with ancient Molykreion (or Molykreia), a city of Lokris mentioned by numerous ancient writers (Thuc. 2.84.4
; Strab. 9.4.8
, 10.2.4; Paus. 9.31.6
5.94.7-8; Ptol. 3.15.3; Skylax 38.35; Plut., Mor. Conv.
. 162f) in the area of modern Antirrhion. This
city, which goes back to the 8th c. B.C., was under
Corinthian control until the 5th c., but was taken by the
Spartans and Aitolians at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War, and was thereafter under Aitolian government. Three mutilated inscriptions were found, of which one, restored, refers to Athena, but this fact does not
prove that she was worshiped in the temple, since there
is mention of a Temple of Poseidon to which Hesiod's
murderer fled. Absence of inscriptional evidence for the
name of the city has led investigators to a number of different theories. Some would place the city Molykreia on
the promontory of Antirrhion, and others on the hill
where are the remains described above. According to the
second hypothesis, the city that is visible above the
springs at the shore by Antirrhion would be a harbor of
the same name for the inland city, or finally, the name
Molykreia (or Molykreion) would refer not only to the
city but to the whole area, as would appear in the occasional epithet of Molykreian (sometimes Aitolian) applied to Rhion, in contrast to the Achaian Rhion across the way, as epithets characteristically desiguate the area
rather than a particular city (cf. also Rhion of Messenia).
A. K. Orlandos, ArchDelt
9 (1924-25 ) 55-64; W. Oldfather, RE
XVI (1933) 35;
Fiehn, “Molykria,” ibid. 39; L. Lerat, Les Locriens de
(1952) I-II; Bibl. des Ecoles franç. d'Athènes
et de Rome, no. 176PM
; Fraser & Lerat, “Les Locriens
de l'Ouest,” Gnomon
26 (1954); F. W. Walbank, A
Historical Commentary on Polybius
(1957) I; E. Kirsten
& A. Philippson, Griech. Landschaften
(1958) II 2 322;
G. Klaffenback, IG
(1958) IX 3.