(Belkis or Balkiz) Turkey.
the isthmus of the peninsula Arktonnesos (Kapu Dağ）
on the SW coast of the Sea of Marmara. Arktonnesos was
originally an island, but it became a peninsula by means
of two parallel dykes and accumulations of sand. Kyzikos, according to tradition, was the earliest colony in the
Propontis founded by Miletos (Strab. 14.635
; Plin. HN
5.142). Eusebios (Chron
. 2.81.87) says that Kyzikos
was twice colonized, in 756 and 679 B.C., but a Greek
settlement in the mid 8th c. on the Propontis is unlikely—Miletos was not in a position to found colonies there
before the beginning of the 7th c. Indeed nothing has
been found in the whole Pontos area dating from before
the middle of the 7th c. In Byzantium, which was a Megarian colony, the earliest pottery found is late Protocorinthian in style, of the third quarter of the 7th c., while
a Late Geometric sherd, the oldest pottery discovered in
Daskyleion, dates from ca. 680-670 B.C. Thus Kyzikos
must have been founded about 700 B.C. at the earliest.
On the trade route between Pontos and the Aegean,
Kyzikos was an important center from the beginning,
and the Κυζικηνοῦ στατῆρες χρυσίου
were the most important coins of the E Greek world from the 6th to the 4th c.
B.C. The city took part in the Ionian revolt, belonged to
the Delian League, and during the Peloponnesian war it
was held alternately by Athens and Sparta. In 411 B.C.
the Athenians defeated the Spartan fleet under Alcibiades
near Kyzikos. In 387, however, it became subject to
Persia, like the other Greek cities in W Anatolia, under
the Peace of Antalcidas. Incorporated in the Pergamene
kingdom about 190, it passed to Rome in 133 B.C.
The earliest sherds found at Kyzikos are of the orientalizing style, but there must have been older pottery;
the archaic layer lies below sea level and the lower strata
are hard to reach. Noteworthy is a big fragment of a
columna caelata, mid 6th c. B.C., which represents a
young woman dancing between two youths (in the Archaeological Museum in Istanbul). It reflects some Milesian influence, but is a local creation. The archaic statue
of a young man with arms and legs missing, also in the
Istanbul Museum, was likewise made in Kyzikos after
Milesian models. Many other finds from Kyzikos and
the neighborhood are in the same museum, others are
in the Erdek Open-Air Museum.
All that exists today of the Temple of Hadrian, in the
SW district of the city, is the vaulting that supported the
platform. The temple was dedicated to the emperor as
the 13th Olympian god; in the late Roman era it was
accepted as one of the seven wonders of the world. In
1431 Cyriacus of Ancona saw the whole upper part of
the building with 33 columns intact; his engravings have
made it possible to identify a piece of one of the temple
columns, now in the Erdek Museum.
F. W. Hasluck,Cyzicus
XII 1 (1925) 228-33; D. Magie, Roman Rule in Asia
(1950) 81; B. Ashmole, “Cyriac of Ancona and
the Temple of Hadrian at Cyzicus,”JWarb
76-91; E. Akurgal, “Recherches faites à Cyzique,”Anatolia
1 (1956) 15-20I
; id., Die Kunst Anatoliens
234-39, 257, 262I
; id., “Neue archaische Bildwerke aus
8 (1965) 99-103I
; P. Laubscher, “Zwei
neue Kouroi,” IstMitt
13-14 (1963-64) 73-80; id., “Zum
Fries des Hadrianstempels,” ibid. 17 (1967) 211-17.