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ROMA Italy.

The Origins

The key to Rome's early importance and predominance is its geographic position on the Tiber, the largest river of central Italy. At a distance of ca. 20 km from its mouth, an island in the Tiber provides the easiest place to cross the river between Rome and the sea; and there is no other crossing place for many miles upstream. The left bank opposite the island became the natural halting place for the general overhand traffic from N to S of the Italian peninsula as well as for the salt trade route which came from the salt marshes N of the mouth of the Tiber. The river was crossed at the island by bridges or by ferry, and the salt route continued over the Vicus Iugarius, the Argiletum and the Via Salaria towards the mountainous regions of the Sabines, whereas the traffic from the N of Italy into Latium and Campania took its way through the valley of the Forum along the Sacra Via towards the Alban hills. The earliest traces of settlements within the boundaries of later Rome have been found in the immediate vicinity of the Tiber island S of the Vicus Iugarius. Excavations in the Area Sacra of S. Omobono, begun in 1937, point to pre-urban settlements from ca. 1500-1400 B.C. Early religious traditions like the festival of the Septimontium, which included the Palatium, Cermalus, Velia, Fagutal, Caelius (with Succusa), Oppius, and Cispius, show that the development of Rome as an organized township was based on the hills as natural strongholds. Owing to this geographic position there was uninterrupted habitation on the site of Rome from the second millennium B.C. on. In the Iron Age, an archaic city emerged on the left bank of the river enclosing the four regions: Suburana (Caelius), Esquilina, Collina (Quirinal and Viminal), and Palatina. The Capitoline, always regarded as the citadel of the united city, was not included in one of the regions. The archaeological evidence of Iron Age tombs and hut foundations is, however, not limited to the Palatine, Quirinal, Esquiline, and Velia; it also appears to a large extent in the valley of the later Forum Romanum although the legend describes this as a marsh made habitable only by the draining by the Cloaca Maxima, attributed to the engineering skill of the Etruscans. The fact that a hut settlement was found at the lowest point of the valley at the Equus Domitiani 5 m below the first Imperial pavement of the Forum is ample evidence that the open brook coming from the valley between Quirinal and Viminal, crossing the valleys of the Forum and the Velabrum and emptying into the Tiber, provided sufficient drainage to make the valley habitable and to keep the old road open for traffic. The spring-fed brooks that drained the valleys provided at the same time fresh water for the early dwellers. Through the Campus Martius flowed the Petronia Amnis, the only watercourse whose ancient name is known to us; it came from a spring, Fons Cati, on the slope of the Quirinal. The brook that drained the valley of the Circus Maximus (Vallis Murcia) between the Palatine and Aventine originated from two branches, one coming from the Oppius, crossing the site of the Colosseum and continuing between Palatine and Caelian; at the SE corner of the Palatine it joined another watercourse coming out of the valley S of the Caelian. After crossing the circus valley and the Forum Boarium it flowed into the Tiber ca. 100 m below the mouth of the Cloaca Maxima. It was not the marshy ground that made settling in the valleys difficult—there is no evidence that the settlements on the hillsides were populated more densely or earlier than those in the valleys—but the violent inundations of the Tiber which plagued the city until the beginning of the 20th c. The winter floods, many of them recorded by ancient writers, must often have destroyed the hut settlements in the valleys. Usually the flood exhausted itself in three to five days, and the inhabitants could easily repair the damage to their huts without giving up the place of habitation.

Forum Romanum

The archaic sepulcretum E of the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina and an extension towards the W below the Regia and the Temple of Divus Iulius with tombs from the 9th c. to about 700 B.C. was abandoned by the middle of the 7th c. At the same time the hut settlements disappeared to make room for a general common square. From the beginning the Forum Romanum was a market place with market booths on its long sides—later called Tabernae Veteres on the S and Tabernae Novae on the opposite side. The E and W sides were bordered by religious structures. At the spot where the Sacra Via, descending from the Velia, entered the Forum stood the hut-shaped Temple of Vesta which contained the sacred fire of the community. Across the street, the E boundary of the square was first formed by a stone platform which probably carried a religious monument; it was succeeded by an archaic temple by the first quarter of the 6th c. At the very beginning of the Roman republic, i.e. during the last decade of the 6th c., the temple was replaced by the Regia, the sanctuary of the Rex Sacrorum where he performed the official sacrifices of the state. The opposite, W side of the Forum was bordered by the sacred precinct of Vulcan, the Volcanal, whose ancient pre-urban, rock-hewn altar is still extant. It lay about 5 m above the Comitium, the assembly place of the comitia curiata, and from it the assembled people could be addressed before a speakers platform was built. The area of the Comitium was laid out together with the Forum; both squares received their first pavement around 575 B.C. On the highest point of its N side stood the senate house, the Curia Hostilia, named after the third king Tullus Hostilius. On the S side facing the Curia, orators addressed the people from a tribune which, from 338 B.C., took the name of Rostra from the beaks of captured ships with which it was decorated. To the left of the Rostra stood a group of archaic monuments: a four-sided stele that carries the oldest Latin inscription, the stump of a conical column, and the foundation of a sacellum with tufa bases for statues of recumbent lions. When these monuments were covered in the 1st c. B.C. with a black marble pavement, the so-called Lapis Niger, their original meaning was already unknown; they were believed to belong to a tomb of Romulus or his foster father Faustulus or of Hostus Hostilius, the father of King Tullus. There are other early monuments in the Forum connected with the legendary history of the Roman kings: e.g., the Lacus Curtius, the plinth of a puteal marking the spot where, during the battle between Latins and Sabines, the horse of the Sabine leader Mettius Curtius stumbled into a swamp and thus brought the fight to a halt. On the same occasion Romulus is said to have vowed a temple to Iupiter Stator, which he built on the Velia. The remains immediately SE of the Arch of Titus belong to a reconstruction of the temple by the consul M. Atilius Regulus in 294 B.C.

After centuries of primitive village civilization, Rome, from the 6th c. B.C., developed rapidly into a town assimilating building types that were introduced from Etruria. There is no doubt that in the 6th c. the kings of Rome were of Etruscan origin, and the archaeological evidence from the towns and cemeteries around Rome confirms the priority of Etruscan culture. Thus the Forum Romanum, after having been established as the civic center of the town, soon became an architecturally closed space. In 497 B.C. the Temple of Saturn was dedicated at the SW corner of the square replacing an earlier Fanum Saturni which, together with the Volcanal, had closed the W side before. At the SE corner a temple was consecrated, in 484 B.C., to Castor and Pollux after the Dioscuri in 496 B.C. had brought news of the victory at Lake Regillus to Rome and had watered their horses at the Lacus Iuturnae immediately SE of where the temple was to stand. On the N side where the street of the Argiletum entered the Forum stood the Shrine of Janus Geminus, a small rectangular structure with doors at each end which were closed only when general peace was achieved. In front of the Tabernae Novae, first occupied by dealers in provisions and by butchers and later by money changers, stood the small round Shrine of Cloacina, the divinity of the Cloaca Maxima a branch of which entered the Forum at this point. On the W side above the Volcanal a Temple of Concord was erected in 366 B.C. after the conflict between Patricians and Plebs had been settled. It was rebuilt by L. Opimius in 121 B.C., restored by Tiberius, and dedicated as Aedes Concordiae Augustae in A.D. 10.

From the beginning of the 2d c. B.C. the building of basilicas emphasized the monumental character of the Forum. Nothing is left of the Basilica Porcia erected in 184 B.C. next to the Curia Hostilia and burned down together with it in 52 B.C. at the funeral of Clodius. The Basilica Opimia, built in 121 B.C. next to the Temple of Concord, has also entirely disappeared. On the S side behind the Tabernae Veteres, the censor Ti. Sempronius Gracchus erected in 170 the Basilica Sempronia on the site previously occupied by the house of Scipio Africanus, remains of which have been discovered under the Basilica Iulia. On the opposite long side of the Forum, the Basilica Aemilia was erected in 179 B.C., enclosing the Tabernae Novae within its portico.

The great town-planning schemes of Iulius Caesar included a new orientation of the buildings of the Comitium and the Forum. The Rostra was removed from the S border of the Comitium and given a new collocation at the W side of the Forum with the whole free area of the square in front of it. At the S end of the Rostra, Augustus erected in 20 B.C. the Milliarium Aureum, the Golden Milestone, which recorded the distances to the chief cities of the empire. At the N end stood the Umbilicus Romae, which marked the center of Rome and of the Roman world. The Curia Hostilia, rebuilt after the fire of 52 B.C. by Faustus Sulla, was torn down and with it disappeared the NS orientation of the Comitium, which was reduced to a small square in front of the new Curia Iulia, begun by Caesar and completed by Augustus. On the S side, the Basilica Sempronia was replaced by the Basilica Iulia, begun in 54 B.C. For its construction the Tabernae Veteres were removed. Augustus, who completed Caesar's plans and buildings, transformed the whole SE corner of the Forum into a building complex in honor of Caesar and of the gens Iulia. In front of the Regia on the spot where Caesar's body was burned, he erected the Temple of Divus Iulius. It was dedicated in 29 B.C., and the senate at the same time decreed a triumphal arch to him next to the temple for his victory over Antony and Cleopatra at Actium. An arcaded portico which surrounded the temple was named Porticus Iulia for the members of the gens Iulia and, across the street at the SE end of the Basilica Aemilia, a Porticus Gai et Luci was dedicated to Augustus' grandsons Gaius and Lucius Caesar. The Temple of Divus Iulius replaced a platform of tufa blocks, the site of the Tribunal Aurelium and the Gradus Aurelii, where trials were conducted from ca. 75 B.C.; it is no longer mentioned after the time of Cicero. Many other tribunals in the Forum were no more than wooden platforms like the Tribunal Praetorium of the praetor urbanus or that of L. Naevius Surdinus, “praetor inter cives et peregrinos” as he calls himself in an inscription on the pavement, next to the statue of Marsyas in the center of the square.

The view to the W had been closed ever since 78 B.C. when Q. Lutatius Catulus built the Tabularium, the state archives of the Roman republic, between the two summits of the Capitoline. In front of its facade facing the Forum stood, to the S, the Porticus Deorum Consentium, dedicated to the twelve Olympian gods and originally built in the 3d or 2d c. B.C. and restored for a last time in A.D. 367. Between the portico and the Temple of Concord, Titus and Domitian erected a temple to their deified father Vespasian.

The splendor of the Forum was enhanced by triumphal and other arches. The Sacra Via entered the Forum through the Fornix Fabianus, built in 121 B.C. by A. Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus, remains of which have been found at the SE corner of the Regia. The street then passed through the Arch of Augustus erected in 29 which was replaced by a triple arch decreed in 19 B.C., after the standards captured by the Parthians had been returned; on the piers of this arch the Fasti consulares and triumphales were engraved. The W side of the Forum was adorned by the single Arch of Tiberius erected in A.D. 16 and a triple arch dedicated to Septimius Severus and his sons Caracalla and Geta in A.D. 203. The two main streets at the W end, the Vicus Iugarius and the Argiletum, also entered the Forum through street arches (Iani). The sites of three equestrian statues on the area of the Forum can be identified as the Equus Domitiani (A.D. 91), the Equus Constantini (A.D. 334) and the Equus Constantii (A.D. 352).

In A.D. 303 a monument of five columns was erected immediately behind the Rostra for the Vicennalia of Diocletian and Maximian and the Decennalia of the Caesars Constantius Chlorus and Galerius. This monument of Diocletian's tetrarchy is represented in relief on the N side of the Arch of Constantine. One of the column bases decorated with reliefs is still extant and the foundations of all five columns were excavated in 1959. The last monument to be erected in the Forum Romanum was the column in front of the Rostra dedicated to the Byzantine Emperor Phocas in 608.

Sacra Via

The region between the Forum and the top of the Velia was called the Sacra Via. After leaving the Forum area through the Arch of Augustus, the street passes on the S the precinct of Vesta with the temple and the Atrium Vestae, the dwelling of the Vestal Virgins. Their sumptuous residence with a large court decorated with three water basins, the remains of which are still to be seen, was built after the Neronian fire of A.D. 64. Just as Caesar changed the orientation of the Forum, so Nero changed the orientation of the Sacra Via and the buildings bordering it. The pre-Neronian Atrium Vestae followed the course of the original street parallel to the Regia and to the Domus Publica. This, the official residence of the Pontifex Maximus, became part of the Atrium Vestae when, in 12 B.C., Augustus, after his election as Pontifex Maximus, gave up the official residence in favor of his house on the Palatine. After passing through the Fornix Fabianus, the Sacra Via joins a second branch running N of the Regia and entering the Forum between the Temple of Divus Iulius and the Porticus Gai et Luci. On the N side of this street stands the temple which, in A.D. 141, Antoninus Pius erected to the memory of his deceased wife Faustina. After his death, in 161, it was dedicated to him as well.

Going E towards the Velia, one sees on the right a semicircular podium recognizable as the platform of a Sanctuary to Bacchus, which is known from a coin of the man who restored it, Antoninus Pius. Literary sources reveal the existence of a Temple of the Lares and a Tholos of Magna Mater on the Velia where the Clivus Palatinus meets the Sacra Via; of these temples no traces have been found.

From the early times of the hut settlements the Sacra Via was a densely populated residential quarter. The inhabitants were called sacravienses. Numerous remains of private buildings of the Republican and early Imperial period have been found and, according to tradition, some of the kings and many patrician families had their dwellings on the Sacra Via and on the height of the Velia (“in Summa Sacra Via”). Stone foundations of archaic houses from the first half of the 6th c. B.C. have been found over the tombs of the sepulcretum E of the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina. Next to it are basement rooms of a private house on both sides of a narrow corridor, dating from about the middle of the 1st c. B.C., which its excavator once erroneously called a “carcer.” Higher up, about 30 m W of the Arch of Titus, are the remains of a rooming house of more than 35 rooms with a common bathing establishment dating from about 80 to 50 B.C. All these buildings were destroyed by the Neronian fire in A.D. 64, or they were sacrificed for the construction of the portico that Nero built leading to the vestibule of his new palace, The Golden House. The foundations of its colonnades cut through the curves of the Sacra Via and run in a straight line from the vestibule on the height of the Velia to the site of the Fornix Fabianus, flanking an avenue 30 m wide. Domitian soon transformed the N side of the portico into the Horrea Piperataria, a bazaar for eastern goods, pepper and spices; the jewellers' shops that existed on the S side were converted into the Porticus Margaritaria in the second quarter of the 2d c. In A.D. 81 Domitian erected at the summit of the Velia the arch in honor of his deceased brother Titus, commemorating his triumph for the conquest of Jerusalem in A.D. 70. At the beginning of the 4th c. the Horrea Piperataria disappeared under the new building of the Basilica of Constantine, which was begun by Maxentius under the name of Basilica Nova and completed by Constantine after A.D. 313. To the same period belongs the so-called Temple of Romulus between the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina and the Basilica of Constantine, which Maxentius—according to a conjecture based on coins showing a circular temple—built in memory of his son M. Valerius Romulus, who died in A.D. 309. On the site of the vestibule of Nero's Domus Aurea, Hadrian erected the Temple of Venus and Roma, consecrated in 136 or A.D. 137. The colossal statue of Nero in the midst of the vestibule was removed to a site opposite the Colosseum, where the last remains of its base were destroyed in 1936.


The Sacra Via was the principal means of communication between the Forum and the Palatine. At the Arch of Titus there branched off from it the Clivus Palatinus which, passing through an arch probably built by Domitian, reached the summit of the Palatium, the S elevation of the Mons Palatinus. At the beginning of the Clivus Palatinus once stood the Porta Mugonia, one of the three gates of the early Palatine town (the others being the Porta Romana, somewhere on the Clivus Victoriae, and a nameless gate at the Scalae Caci). According to tradition the Palatine, where Romulus founded the town in the middle of the 8th c. B.C., was the first of the hills to be inhabited. A hut with a thatched roof which was believed to be the house of Romulus was regarded with great veneration, always restored and preserved until the 4th c. A.D. The foundations of three huts excavated in 1948 between the Temple of the Magna Mater and the Scalae Caci, a narrow path leading from the Palatine to the valley of the Circus Maximus, suggest the shape of Romulus' dwelling. The Temple of Magna Mater at the W corner of the Palatine was built sometime after 203 B.C. to house the sacred black stone of the goddess, which had been brought to Rome from Pessinus in Asia Minor. Some other early monuments that escaped being buried by the construction of the imperial palaces have been preserved on this corner of the hill: two archaic cisterns from the 6th c. B.C., situated between the temple and the house of Augustus, and the foundations of the Auguratorium, which may have marked the place where later ages thought that Romulus took the auspices for the foundation of his new town.

Very early in Rome's architectural history the Palatine had become a typical residential quarter. In the 1st c. B.C., it was the choicest residential area, where people like Lutatius Catulus, L. Crassus, Clodius, Cicero, Catilina, Mark Antony and Germanicus, the father of Caligula, lived. Augustus himself was born on the Palatine. Almost all these houses have disappeared. Under the “Lararium” of the Domus Flavia a private house, dating from about the middle of the 1st c. B.C., was excavated, the so-called Casa dei Grifi; and under the basilica of the same building was uncovered an “Aula Isiaca” which shows Egyptian-style wall paintings from the end of the 1st c. B.C. Only one private dwelling from the time of the Republic survived the palatial buildings on the Palatine erected by Tiberius, Caligula, Nero, Domitian, and Septimius Severus. This was the house of Augustus, which he had bought ca. 36 B.C. from the orator Hortensius and which became the first imperial residence. This house has been identified with the so-called “Casa di Livia” excavated in 1869. Like the hut of Romulus, the house was spared destruction and remodeling and although it became surrounded by splendid palaces on a much higher level, lived on unaltered to the end of the principate. It was enlarged and extended towards the valley of the Circus Maximus; here, immediately W of the Temple of Apollo, rows of terraced rooms, partly decorated with wall paintings, have recently been excavated. The enlarged house must have been completed at about the time when the Temple of Apollo Palatinus was dedicated in 28 B.C. The temple is now generally identified with the podium and long flight of steps to the W of the Domus Flavia, formerly attributed to Iuppiter Victor. The library of the temple, Bibliotheca Apollinis Palatini, built and dedicated at the same time as the temple, has been unearthed SW of the triclinium of the Domus Flavia.

The NW part of the Palatine was covered by the palace of Tiberius. Very little is known of the original building. Caligula extended the palace towards the Roman Forum and enclosed the Temple of Castor in its precinct. After the fire in A.D. 80 Domitian reconstructed the whole building complex which, to the S, almost touches the house of Augustus and on the E borders the Area Palatina. A balcony with stuccoed arcades runs the whole length of the N facade overlooking the Forum, and to the N a great reception hall (formerly wrongly identified as Temple of Augustus) was added, thus making the palace accessible from the Vicus Tuscus. Next to the hall on the same street a warehouse has come to light; the inscription on an altar identifies it as the Horrea Agrippiana.

The SE corner of the hill was first occupied by Nero Domus Transitoria, the palace which connected the imperial dwelling on the Palatine with the gardens of Maecenas on the Esquiline. After having been destroyed by the fire of A.D. 64, its burned ruins were covered by the Domus Aurea. All these structures disappeared less than a generation later under Domitian's Domus Augustiana, which occupied the whole of the SE half of the hill, the Palatium. Above the Area Palatina stood the colonnaded facade of the Domus Flavia behind which were the state rooms of the palace, namely a basilica (or courtroom), a reception hall, and a lararium. In the center of the domus was a peristyle garden and on the S of it the triclinium flanked by a nymphaeum on each side. East of this building is the Domus Augustiana itself with a peristyle surrounding a pool on the same level with the Domus Flavia. On a lower level is a courtyard with a fountain surrounded by the residential quarters and boasting a semicircular flicade on the S slope of the hill towards the Circus Maximus. Still farther E the so-called Stadium of Domitian or Hippodromus Palatii, leads to the constructions of Septimius Severus consisting mainly of bathing establishments supported by huge vaults of masonry. A monumental freestanding facade erected in A.D. 203, the Septizonium, which faced the Via Appia, screened the SE corner of the imperial palace. Halfway down the S slope of the Palatine is a row of small rooms which were perhaps servants' quarters. On the basis of graffiti scratched on the walls the building has been called the Paedagogium. Still lower down on the Via dei Cerchi is a private house that also may have belonged to the imperial palace. Its modern name, Domus Praeconum, results from wall paintings that show heralds and slaves receiving guests.

A temple area surrounded by porticos covered the NE corner of the Palatine. In its center the remains of a large temple (ca. 65 x 40 m) have been unearthed. The area may be the site of a sanctuary erected by Livia to Augustus, later used for the cult of all emperors under the name of Aedes Caesarum. The excavated ruins probably belong to the temple which Elagabalus (A.D. 218-22) erected to the Syrian sun god, Sol Invictus Elagabalus, and which was transformed into the Temple of Iuppiter Ultor by his successor, Alexander Severus. The temple area was accessible from the Clivus Palatinus through a monumental gateway, the Pentapylum, of which the remains are to be seen in the Via di S. Bonaventura.

Imperial Fora

The fora of the emperors formed the NW limit of the monumental center of ancient Rome. The new orientation that Caesar gave to the Forum Romanum—by removing the Rostra from the Comitium to the W end of the forum's area, by replacing the Curia Iulia, and by practically abandoning the Comitium in shape and function—was closely related to the construction of his new Forum Iulium. The back wall of the Curia Iulia stood in line with an uninterrupted row of shops which formed the long S side of the Forum Iulium, thus being at its SE corner. In 46 B.C. Caesar dedicated the still unfinished forum and the Temple of Venus Genetrix, the ancestress of the gens Iulia; both were completed by Augustus. Trajan extended Caesar's forum towards the Capitol and erected at the SW end the building called Basilica Argentaria. With the “insula Argentaria” on a higher level, the Forum Iulium bordered the Clivus Argentarius, the only direct connection between the Forum Romanum and the Campus Martius. At its beginning below the Arx of the Capitol was the Carcer Mamertinus, the old Roman state prison; it then passed along the W side of the Forum Iulium, leaving the tomb of C. Poplicius Bibulus on the right, to join the Via Flaminia.

Adjoining the Forum Iulium Augustus built his own Forum Augustum to provide additional room for the courts and to demonstrate, by a splendid architectural achievement as well as by a carefully chosen program of sculptural decoration, the continuity of Early Roman history down to his own rule as princeps. In its center stood the Temple of Mars Ultor, which was vowed during the battle of Philippi in 42 and consecrated in 2 B.C. On either side of the temple were porticos and behind these were exedrae with statues of the mythical ancestors of the gens Iulia, of triumphatores, and other distinguished citizens. A large part of the inscriptions, the Elogia, have been found. In A.D. 19 Tiberius erected triumphal arches in honor of his son Drusus and his nephew Germanicus on either side of the Temple of Mars Ultor.

In A.D. 71, after the capture of Jerusalem, Vespasian began the construction of the Temple of Peace, which was dedicated in A.D. 75. It stood at the SE side of the Forum Pacis, a spacious area decorated with flower beds and surrounded by a wall. Almost the whole space of the forum is now covered by the modern streets Via dei Fori Imperiali and Via Cavour. The only extant architectural remains is a building on the SE side, into which the church of SS. Cosma and Damiano was subsequently built. It probably was the library of the Forum, and the marble plan of Septimius Severus (Forma Urbis Romae) was later attached to its NE wall where the dowel holes for holding the slabs of the plan are still visible.

Between Vespasian's forum and the Forum Augustum passed the Argiletum, which was the street joining the Forum Romanum and the Subura, a populous quarter between Viminal and Esquiline. Vespasian had intended to develop this unused space into another forum. His architectural concept was carried out by Domitian, who erected in the N part a Temple of Minerva. After the death of Domitian the forum and the temple were dedicated by Nerva in A.D. 97, and the forum was called Forum Nervae or Forum Transitorium. The colonnaded perimeter walls transformed the Argiletum into a monumental avenue; after leaving the forum at the E side of the temple, the street passed through a semicircular portico, the Porticus Absidata. This has been known since the 16th c. from a fragment of the Severan marble plan. Excavations in 1940 revealed the curved foundation that adjoins the perimeter wall of the Forum Augustum to the W and the Forum Pacis to the E.

With the last and largest of the imperial fora Trajan completed Caesar's original plan of connecting the Forum Romanum and the Campus Martius. The Forum Traiani, built by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus, was dedicated in A.D. 112. From the side of the Forum Augustum it was entered by a large triumphal arch. The main building, the Basilica Ulpia, constituted the NW boundary of the forum area, which on the two other sides was surrounded by porticos and apses. Behind the basilica stands the Column of Trajan, the pedestal of which served as tomb for himself and his wife Plotina, flanked by two libraries. Hadrian completed the forum by erecting at its NW end a Temple of Trajan and Plotina surrounded by a colonnade. This part of the forum has never been excavated.

Trajan's Market

Parallel to the NE apse of Trajan's Forum a complex of buildings constructed in brick-faced concrete rises against the slope of the Quirinal. It served as a market for general trading and probably also for the public distribution of grain and other provisions. The market buildings were erected in the first decade of the 2d c. A.D. and were finished before the Forum was dedicated. As a result of the excavation of 1929-30 more than 150 individual tabernae are now accessible. Toward the modern Via Quattro Novembre is a great two-storied hall, and on a higher level there are shops with water tanks for the sale of fish, and others with drains in the pavement for the sale of oil and wine. Larger rooms with niches in the walls were probably offices for administration. On three different levels streets provided access to the buildings: on the lowest level the shops of the hemicycle faced a street that skirted the perimeter wall of the forum. On a higher level a street with the mediaeval name of Via Biberatica led through the shops of the third story. The upper street running beside the modern Salita del Grillo gave access to the shops facing the Quirinal.

Capitol and Servian Wall

The Mons Capitolinus was the natural fortress for the hills and valleys united in the early city of Rome on the left bank of the Tiber. It was composed of two distinct elevations on N and S and a depression between them, and on all sides it was surrounded by steep cliffs. The N elevation was occupied by the citadel or arx; it is the only site in Rome where early fortification walls preceding the so-called Servian Wall have survived. A temple dedicated in 344 B.C. to Iuno Moneta stood on the part of the hill where the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli now stands. On the S elevation, the Capitolium proper, stood the Temple of Iuppiter Optimus Maximus, dedicated in 509 B.C., the first year of the Roman republic. The original name of this part of the Capitol was Mons Tarpeius. This ancient name in the form of Saxum Tarpeium or Rupes Tarpeia continued to be used for the precipice from which criminals were hurled. This Tarpeian rock rises on the SE corner of the hill overhanging the present-day Piazza della Consolazione. According to literary tradition more than ten other temples and altars stood in the Area Capitolina, of which only the podium of the Temple of Iuppiter Custos has been excavated and partly destroyed when the modern Via del Tempio di Giove was laid out. From the side of the Forum the Capitol was reached by the Clivus Capitolinus. The depression between the elevations was the Asylum, where, according to tradition, Romulus accepted refugees from other towns. In 192 B.C. Q. Marcius Ralla dedicated here a Temple of Veiovis, which was discovered under the SW corner of the Palazzo Senatorio in 1939. The remains date from a restoration coinciding with the construction of the Tabularium in 78 B.C., which closed the entire E side of the Asylum. Private houses extended from below up the slopes of the Capitolium and the arx. When, in 1927, the N side of the Capitol was being cleared, beside the steps leading to S. Maria in Aracoeli a six-story apartment house (insula) was discovered and excavated. When in 387 B.C. the Gauls entered and burned the undefended city, the arx withstood a siege of seven months, until the Gauls left. Only after their departure was the so-called Servian Wall which tradition attributes to the sixth king of Rome Servius Tullius (578-534 B.C.) constructed. This defense line of Republican Rome, still visible in many places, enclosed Rome's traditional seven Hills: Capitoline, Palatine, Aventine, Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline, and Caelian. The wall followed the line of the Pomerium, the symbolic boundary between city and countryside, with the exception of the Aventine which remained outside until the extension of the Pomerium by Claudius in A.D. 49.

Campus Martius

The enceinte of the Republican fortification left a large part of the city outside the walls: the Campus Martius, the Tiber with the area of docks and warehouses, the Tiber Island, the Transtiberine quarter and the Ianiculum. From the beginning of the Republic the Campus Martius was state property. It was used when the people met in the comitia centuriata for assembly and voting, which took place in an enclosed space called the “saepta,” and for the military and athletic training of the Roman youth. As early as 435 B.C. the Villa Publica was built in the S part of the Campus to serve as headquarters for taking the census or levying troops. At about the same time, in 431 B.C., a Temple of Apollo was dedicated; it stood immediately N of where later rose the Theater of Marcellus. The temple stood outside the Pomerium because it was dedicated to a foreign deity. There were other early cult centers besides a temple and altar of Mars to whom the Campus was consecrated: the Ara Ditis et Proserpinae in the Tarentum at the last stretch of the Corso Vittorio Emanuele near the Tiber, and the Temple of Bellona, built in 296 B.C next to the Temple of Apollo. In the S part of the Campus Martius numerous other temples were erected which, after the construction of the Circus Flaminius in 221 n.e., were either called “in Circo Flaminio” or “in Campo Martis” according to their location. Fragments of the Forma Urbis Romae indicated the location of the Circus Flaminius between the Porticus of Octavia and the Tiber. Within the Porticus of Octavia stood the Temples of Iuno Regina and Iuppiter Stator, and, immediately to the W was the Porticus Philippi enclosing the Temple of Hercules Musarum. The Temple of the Lares Permarini, dedicated in 179 B.C. and discovered in 1938 m Via delle Botteghe Oscure, was surrounded by the Porticus Minucia. The construction of the Theater of Pompey in 55 B.C. started a new trend in filling the Campus Martius with public buildings. Caesar planned the construction of a theater between the Forum Holitorium and the Circus Flaminius. It was built by Augustus and dedicated in 13 B.C. to the memory of his nephew Marcellus. At the same time L. Cornelius Balbus erected a theater with a porticus, the Crypta Balbi, the remains of which are under the Palazzo Mattei di Paganica. On the Via Flaminia, which ran through the Campus Martius from S to N, the Ara Pacis was dedicated to the Pax-Augusta in 9 B.C.; even earlier in 28 B.C., in the N part, Augustus had built a ustrinum (crematory) and the mausoleum for himself and his family. At about the same time his son-in-law Agrippa erected the Pantheon and began the construction of public baths just N of a square with four Republican temples (Area Sacra del Largo Argentina) so far unidentified. Between the Pantheon and the baths he built the Basilica Neptuni and, immediately to the E of this building complex, he completed the great voting precinct started by Caesar, the Saepta Iulia. Some 85 years later Nero built Rome's second public baths and a gymnasium to the NW of the Pantheon. To the SE of it Domitian restored a Temple of Isis and Serapis and built next to it, in memory of his father Vespasian and brother Titus, the Templum and Porticus Divorum; between the two structures he erected a small round temple of Minerva Chalcidica. He also built a stadium whose outline is preserved in the Piazza Navona and immediately S of it an Odeum, a theater for musical performances. Agrippa's Pantheon was entirely rebuilt by Hadrian and consecrated between A.D. 125 and 128. Next to it he erected a temple in honor of his mother-in-law Matidia and, immediately W of this temple stood the Hadrianeum built to his memory by Antoninus Pius, of which eleven marble columns and the wall of the cella are still standing on the Piazza di Pietra. The Antonines concentrated their building activities in the zone of the Campus Martius N of the Hadrianeum. On the Piazza Colonna the Column of Marcus Aurelius still stands, and the ustrina of Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius have been found near Piazza Montecitorio and Piazza del Parlamento. The column of Antoninus Pius, excavated in front of the ustrinum in 1703, did not survive except for the sculptured pedestal now in the Cortile della Pigna in the Vatican. Meanwhile, the Via Flaminia whose intramural part was later called Via Lata, had become the main thoroughfare of the Campus Martius. It was spanned by three triumphal arches, one for Claudius, the Arcus Novus for Diocletian, and the “Arco di Portogallo” the attribution of which is uncertain. On the E side of the street traces of shops and private dwellings have been discovered. On the same side, between Piazza S. Silvestro and Via Borgognona, Aurelian built a Temple of the Sun (Templum Solis) after his return from the east in A.D. 273.

Markets and Warehouses

Immediately S of the Campus Martius the left bank of the Tiber was entirely occupied by open and covered markets and by warehouses. The vegetable market—Forum Holitorium—had been greatly reduced in size by the encroachment of the Theater of Marcellus. The remaining space was taken up by the Temples of Ianus, Spes, and Iuno Sospita, the remains of which exist beneath and beside the church of S. Nicola in Carcere. The E boundary against the slope of the Capitoline was formed by a portico; the ruins are still extant N of the Vicus Iugarius. South of it is the cattle market—Forum Boarium—bounded on the SE by the Circus Maximus and by the Tiber on the W. It was filled with temples, monuments, and other buildings dating from the beginning of the city to the period of the late empire. The twin temples of Fortuna and Mater Matuta were first built at the end of the 6th c. B.C., together with the archaic altars in front of them. Nearby stand two well-preserved temples, a round one of marble from the beginning of the 1st c. B.C. and an Ionic rectangular temple; one of these may have been dedicated to Portunus. In A.D. 204 at the entrance from the Velabrum a gate was erected to Septimius Severus and his family; a four-sided marble arch, Ianus Quadrifrons, stands next to it over the course of the Cloaca Maxima. Under the church of S. Maria in Cosmedin was the ancient Republican Temple of Ceres; along its NW side a hall for the headquarters of the Praefectus Annonae was built in the 4th c. A.D. The columns of this Statio Annonae are still visible in the church.

From the Forum Boarium extended for ca. 350 m a narrow street under the steep cliff of the Aventine along the Tiber. Here, remains of the landing stage and warehouses of the Emporium have been found which extended for ca. 1 km. It handled goods coming up the river from Ostia and served for 450 years the needs of the city's population. The covered market hall alone, the Porticus Aemilia, of which the remains in opus incertum date from a restoration in 174 B.C., measured 487 m in length. In front of it on the river bank and also in back were shops and warehouses, of which the Horrea Galbae have recently been uncovered. Testimony to the busy commercial traffic is the Mons Testaceus, an artificial hill some 50 m high made entirely from broken amphorae discarded after the transfer of their contents.

Tiber and Transtiberim

The Emporium embraced the city's river port, which from the beginning of the 2d c. B.C. to the 2d c. A.D. was equipped with harbor facilities such as wharves, mooring-rings, loading ramps, and warehouses. Before arriving at the Tiber island from the S, the river was first bridged at the Forum Boarium by the wooden Pons Sublicius, perhaps only a footpath. For religious reasons it was preserved until the late empire although after 179 B.C. it was replaced, for all practical purposes, by the Pons Aemilius, the first stone bridge. The island in the Tiber “inter duos pontes,” was probably always connected with the banks of the river by some kind of wooden bridges. The still extant Pons Fabricius dates from 62 B.C. and the Pons Cestius, which leads to the right bank, is also of ancient origin. The island was dedicated to Aesculapios, whose temple stood at the S end from the beginning of the 3d c. B.C. To the N of the island, the left bank of the Tiber was occupied by the Navalia, the arsenal and shipyards of the Roman navy. The Pons Aurelius and Pons Agrippae crossed the river just inside of the Transtiberine section of the Aurelian Wall. The Pons Neronianus led the Via Recta, which branched from the Via Flaminia to cross the Campus Martius towards the gardens of Agrippina on the right bank; here, since the time of Caligula, stood the Circus Gai et Neronis with the Obelisk, which now stands in Piazza S. Pietro. When Hadrian built his Mausoleum on the right bank he connected it with the Campus Martius by the Pons Aelius completed in A.D. 134. In the N, the Via Flaminia, built in 220 B.C., crossed the Tiber by the Pons Milvius. Although the transtiberine quarter became a densely populated part of the city, only a few ancient remains have been identified. Under the church of S. Cecilia a private house including a tannery, the Coraria Septimiana, came to light and, near the Viale Trastevere, barracks of a cohors vigilum (police and fireguard) were excavated in 1866. On the slope of the Ianiculum next to the holy grove of the Nymph Furrina, Lucus Furrinae, a sanctuary of Syrian gods was unearthed; it was dedicated to Iuppiter Optimus Maximus Heliopolitanus. When in 1878-80 the Tiber was widened, a storehouse for imperial wine and a luxurious villa were discovered in the grounds of the Villa Farnesina. Nothing is left of a Naumachia of Augustus for which he built a new aqueduct, the Aqua Alsietina, from the lacus Alsietinus (Lago di Martignano).

The Aventine and the Baths of Caracalla

The valley between the Palatine and the Aventine was occupied by the Circus Maximus which, according to legend, was founded in the time of the kings. The extant remains of the SE curve belong to the Imperial period. On the Aventine the oldest temple was the Temple of Diana Aventina founded as a common sanctuary of the Latin league. Nothing remains of the temple nor of several others known only from literary sources. In 1935 a temple to the Syrian Bal under his Roman name of Iuppiter Dolichenus was found under the Via San Domenico. The Aventine was public property until 456 B.C. when it was given to the plebs for settlement; it remained a plebeian quarter to the end of the Republic. During the Empire, however, the rich settled here. Licinius Sura, a friend of Trajan, built his house on the side of the Circus Maximus the baths of which, Thermae Suranae, came to light in 1943. Next to it, under the church of S. Prisca, a Mithraeum was excavated in a large Roman house that could have been the Privata Traiani, the house in which Trajan lived before his adoption by Nerva. On a second elevation (Aventinus Minor), SE of the main hill, stood a famous Temple of the Bona Dea Subsaxana, of which no remains have ever been found. Just above, in the former convent of S. Balbina, walls are still visible of the house which Septimius Severus gave to his friend L. Fabius Cilo. Below this house are the ruins of the Baths of Caracalla, dedicated in A.D. 216. In the subterranean service corridors a Mithraeum was found in 1912, the largest so far discovered in Rome.


Branching off the road between the Colosseum and Circus Maximus, the Clivus Scauri leads to the Caelian hill. It passes the Domus Johannis et Pauli, two Roman houses from the 2d and 3d c. A.D., with a common facade, which is now the S side of the church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo. Under its campanile and convent are remains of the Temple of Claudius, begun by his widow Agrippina, almost destroyed by Nero and completed by Vespasian. The E buttress wall of the temple terrace was transformed into a nymphaeum in the park of Nero's Golden House. Through the Arch of Dolabella et Silanus of A.D. 10 the Clivus Scauri leads out of the enclosure of the Servian Wall. To the left, between the Via Celimontana and Via S. Stefano Rotondo, a building dedicated to the cult of the Magna Mater was discovered in 1889, identified through an inscription as the Basilica Hilariana. The street then passes between two barracks, the Castra Peregrina to the left, for soldiers detached for special service in Rome from provincial legions, and to the right the Statio V of the cohortes vigilum (police and firemen).

At the beginning of the Empire, the E part of the hill became a favorite place for the residences of the affluent. When, in 1959-60, a new wing of the hospital S. Giovanni was being constructed, a whole group of palaces with gardens and terraced garden architecture came to light. Northwest of the Via Amba Aradam were the gardens of Domitia Lucilla, mother of Marcus Aurelius, and the house of Annius Verus in which Marcus Aurelius grew up. On the other side of the street, remains of the houses of Calpurnius Piso and of the Laterani were found. Where the Via Amba Aradam enters Piazza S. Giovanni in Laterano, stands the frigidarium of the Thermae Lateranenses, which dates from the beginning of the 3d c. A.D. This bathing establishment perhaps served the barracks of the Equites Singulares, the mounted guards of the emperor, which were discovered and excavated under S. Giovanni in Laterano in 1934-38. On the extreme E part of the Caelian, Heliogabalus (A.D. 218-222) built a villa which in size and type was comparable with Nero's Golden House or Hadrian's villa at Tivoli. The Amphitheatrum Castrense, the Circus Varianus, and the Thermae Helenae belonged to it. The palace, Palatium Sessorianum, became the residence of the empress Helena and was later converted into the church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme. Running from the Porta Maggiore along the whole Caelian ridge, the Aqua Claudia supplied the water for the Caelian, Palatine, and Aventine. The arches of this branch of the aqueduct were known as the Arcus Neroniani or Caelimontani.

The valley of the Colosseum and the Esquiline

On the way from the Lateran towards the Colosseum on the right side of the Via S. Giovanni in Laterano stands the church of S. Clemente, which was built over two Roman buildings, one a market hall or warehouse and the other a private house from the end of the 1st c. A.D. At the beginning of the 3d c. a Mithraeum was built into it. Before arriving at the Colosseum, about 60 m to the E, are the remains of the Ludus Magnus, the principal training school for gladiators. Of two other schools known to have been E of the Colosseum, the Ludus Matutinus and Ludus Dacicus, no traces have been found. Immediately N of the Ludi and the modern Via Labicana stood the Castra Misenatium, the barracks for sailors from the naval base at Misenum, who were detailed for service in the amphitheater to handle the awnings (velaria) which shielded spectators from the sun. The construction of the Amphitheatrum Flavium (Colosseum), at the site previously occupied by a lake in the grounds of Nero's Golden House, was begun by Vespasian and dedicated by Titus in A.D. 80. Southeast of the amphitheater stands the arch erected in honor of Constantine to commemorate his victory over Maxentius, completed in A.D. 315. In front of its N side stood the Meta Sudans, a monumental fountain built in the reign of Domitian; it was destroyed in 1936. Together with the Colosseum Titus inaugurated his baths, the Thermae Titi on the slope of the Esquiline (Oppian hill). Immediately NE of them Trajan, in A.D. 109, built another, larger bathing establishment over the ruins of the main palace of the Golden House which was burned down in A.D. 104. The Thermae Traiani, built by Apollodoros of Damascus, became the architectural model for all the later public baths in Rome. West of the Thermae was a Temple of Tellus, and next to it the seat of the Praefectus Urbi with the Secretarium Tellurense, a courthouse for closed proceedings. Immediately N of the Thermae Traiani stood the Porticus Liviae, built by Augustus and dedicated to his wife Livia in 7 B.C. No remains of any of these buildings have ever come to light. Below in the valley, in the general direction of the modern Via Cavour, the Clivus Suburanus continued the street of the Argiletum toward the Porta Esquilina of the Servian Wall which, in 262 A.D., was transformed into an arch dedicated to Gallienus and his wife Salonina. A large portion of the Esquiline was occupied by parks, the Horti Maecenatis, Lamiani, Liciniani, Lolliani, Tauriani, Pallantiani, and others. The so-called Auditorium Maecenatis, a semi-interred nymphaeum, was excavated in the grounds of the Horti Maecenatis in 1874. Another nymphaeum near Rome's Termini station, erroneously called “Templum Minervae Medicae,” belonged to the Horti Liciniani and, on the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, stand the ruins of a monumental fountain, the terminal of a branch of the Aqua Iulia. The remains of the Basilica of Iunius Bassus, who was consul in A.D. 331, were excavated and then destroyed in 1930 when the Oriental Seminary (Russicum) was built on the site.

Viminal, Quirinal, Collis Hortorum

North of the Esquiline was the Viminal, bordered on the SE by the Vicus Patricius which ran to the Porta Viminalis of the Servian Wall; the remains of this gate are still visible near the Termini railroad station. On the N side of the Vicus Patricius, under the church of S. Pudenziana, houses of the late Republic and early Empire have been found. Above these houses, by the middle of the 2d c. A.D., the Thermae Novatianae sive Timotheanae were built. Less than 0.8 km N of them are the Baths of Diocletian, dedicated in A.D. 305 or 306, now occupied by the church of S. Maria degli Angeli and the Roman National Museum. On the extreme E part of the hill, between the Via Nomentana and the Via Tiburtina, Tiberius erected the barracks for the praetorian guard, the Castra Praetoria, built after the pattern of a legionary camp. Aurelian incorporated the camp into his city wall. The Quirinal from the time of the kings onward, was the seat of many early religious cults. Of the numerous temples known from literary sources almost nothing is preserved. The main temple dedicated to Quirinus in 293 B.C. stood on the N side of the ancient street Alta Semita (corresponding to the modern Via del Quirinale) in the E part of the modern Quirinal gardens. On the W edge of the hill stood the Temple of Serapis built by Caracalla; a monumental stairway led from it to the Campus Martius. Considerable remains of the temple, its terraces facing the Campus Martius, and the walls of the stairway lie in the gardens of Palazzo Colonna and in the Università Gregoriana. In front of the temple, on the other side of the street, Constantine erected public baths in ca. A.D. 315. The site is now occupied by the Palazzo della Consulta and the Palazzo Pallavicini-Rospigliosi. In the valley between the Quirinal and the Collis Hortulorum (Pincio) the Horti Sallustiani were laid out in ca. B.C. 40. After the death of Sallust they became imperial property and a favorite resort of the Roman emperors. Remains of the palace are still visible in the center of Piazza Sallustio. Bordering the Horti Sallustiani to the N as one ascends the Pincio were the Horti Luculliani from ca. 60 B C which also became imperial property. They were regarded as the most beautiful of the imperial gardens. Recently a piece of terraced garden architecture came to light under the building of the Bibliotheca Hertziana. The Horti Aciliorum, belonging to the Acilii Glabriones in the 2d c. A.D., occupied the whole N part of the Collis Hortulorum.

Aurelian Wall and tombs

For centuries Rome had been secure from hostile aggression, and the fortifications of the Servian Wall were neglected or no longer existed. By the end of the 3d c. A.D., however, the situation had changed and, in anticipation of a sudden barbarian invasion, Aurelian began, between 270 and 272, the construction of a new wall which was completed by Probus (A.D. 276-82). This wall enclosed not only the city of the seven hills but also the Campus Martius with the left bank of the Tiber, transtiberim, and part of the Ianiculum—areas which had been left outside the Servian fortification. The new imperial wall frequently incorporated already existing structures such as the Castra Praetoria, the Amphitheatrum Castrense, the Pyramid of Cestius, the retaining walls of the Horti Aciliorum (Muro Torto), and private houses. Since the general course of the wall was determined by defensive strategy, it abandoned the religious boundary of the Pomerium. Thus, many of the tombs once erected outside the gates of the Servian Wall were now inside the imperial enceinte or were covered by the new gates and fortifications. Next to the Porta Ostiensis stood, as part of the wall, the pyramid tomb of C. Cestius. On the Via Appia, inside the gate, was the family tomb of the Scipios and, next to the Porta Latina, the columbarium of Pomponius Hylas. On the Via Labicana inside the Porta Praenestina, the monumental tomb of the Arruntii has disappeared, but the tombs of the Statilii were unearthed in 1875. The tomb of the baker Eurysaces came to light when the towers of the gate were torn down in 1834. The tomb of Q. Haterius was incorporated in the Porta Nomentana, and under the towers of the Porta Salaria, demolished in 1871, were found the tomb of Q. Sulpicius Maximus and the remains of a tomb of Cornelia. On the Campus Martius the Mausoleum of Augustus and the tombs of C. Vibius Pansa and A. Hirtius (under the Palazzo della Cancelleria) fell within the enclosure of the wall and also, on the right bank of the river, the tomb of the Sulpicii Platorini.

The greater part of the Aurelian Wall is still preserved. It continued to be the defense of Rome until 20 September 1870 when the army of the king of Italy breached it with modern artillery NW of Porta Pin, and entered the city.


For the monuments and sites of Ancient Rome a complete bibliography up to 1928 is offered by S. B. Platner and T. Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (1929) (P-A) and up to 1967 by E. Nash, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Rome (2d ed., 1968) (PDAR). Both works list them in alphabetical order. The names of monuments and sites mentioned in this article correspond to those used in the two dictionaries. For topographical features and buildings no longer visible see P-A; for remains still visible or graphically documented see PDAR. Only additional and more recent bibliography is cited below. For literature published after 1967 the following additional abbreviations are used: Dial = Dialoghi di Archeologia, rivista quadrimestrale, Milano 1967- ; StudTopRom = Studi di Topografia Romana, Quaderni dello Istituto di Topografia Antica, Univ. di Roma V, 1968.

The Origins. P-A: Esquiline, Quirinalis, Velia; S. M. Puglisi, MonAnt 41 (1951) 3-98; P. Romanelli, ibid. 101-24; A. Davico, ibid. 125-34; E. Gjerstad, Early Rome, Acta Inst Sueciae XVII, 1 (1953); XVII, 2 (1956); XVII, 3 (1960); XVII, 4 (1966); H. Müller Karpe, Vom Anfang Roms (1959); id., Zur Stadtwerdung Roms (1962); R. Bloch, The Origins of Rome (1960); M. Pallottino, ArchCl 12 (1960) 1-36; F. E. Brown, Fondation Hardt, entretiens XIII (1967) 45-60; PDAR, Forum Boarium (area sacra di S. Omobono), Forum Romanum (prehistory), Sepulcretum; P. Somella, StudTopRom, p. 65, n. 5; H. Riemann, G.G.A. 222 (1970) 25-66; 223 (1971) 33-86 (review of Gjerstad, Early Rome, III).

Forum Romanum and Sacra Via: G. Carettoni & L. Fabbrini, RendLinc 16 (1961) 53-60; G. Lugli, Itin. di Roma Antica (1970) 251 (Bas. Sempronia); M. Grant, The Roman Forum (1970); F. Zevi, RendLinc 26 (1971) 1-15 (Chalcidicum); P. Zanker, Forum Romanum (1972); G. Lugli, Mon.Minori del Foro Rom. (1947) 157-64 (rooming house).

Palatine: G. Carettoni, NSc (1967) 287-319 (Domus Augusti); M. L. Morricone Matini, Mosaiche Antiche in Italia, Roma reg. X, Palatium (1967); H. Finsen, Anal. Romani Instituti Danici V, Suppl. 1969 (Domus Augustiana); P. Castrén & H. Lilius, Graffiti del Palatino, II Domus Tiberiana, Acta Inst.Rom. Finlandine IV, 1970.

Imperial Fora, Trajan's Market: G. Fiorani, StudTopRom (1968) 91-103 (Forum Iulium); P. Zanker, Forum Augustum (1969); id., “Das Trajansforum als Monument imperialer Selbstdarstellung,” AA (1970) 499-544; C. F. Leon, Die Banornamentik des Trajansforums (1971); L. Rossi, Trajan's Column and the Dacian Wars (1971); M. E. Blake, Roman construction in Italy, III (1972) 10-29 (Trajan's Market), in Memoirs of the American Philosophical Association, Vol. 96.

Capitol and Servian Wall: H. Riemann, RömMitt 76 (1969) 110-21 (Iuppiter Capitolinus); 103-10 (Servian Wall); J. Packer, BullComm 81 (1968-69) 127-49 (insula); H. Lyngby & G. Sartorio, BullComm 80 (1965-67) 5-36 (Porta Trigemina).

Campus Martius: G. Gatti, Quaderni dell'Ist. di Storia dell'Architettura (1961) 49-66 (residential quarter E of Via Flaminia); L. Cozza, StudTopRom (1968) 9-20 (Porticus Minucia); F. Coarelli, Palatino 12 (1968) 365-73 (Area Sacra dell'Argentino); id., “Il Tempio di Bellona,” BullComm 80 (1965-67) 37-72; id., Dial 2 (1968) 302-68 (Neptunus Templ.); id., StudTopRom (1968) 27-37 (Navalia, Tarentum); A. M. Palchetti & L. Quilici, StudTopRom (1968) 77-88 (Iuno Regina); K. De Fine Licht, The Rotonda in Rome (1968); S. Giedion, Architecture and the Phenomena of Transition (1971) 152-60 (Pantheon); P. Fidenzoni, Il Teatro di Marcello, s.d. (1970).

Markets, Warehouses, Tiber: J. Le Gall, Le Tibre, fleuve de Rome dans l'antiquité (1953); G. Cressedi, NSc (1956) 19-52 (Emporium); F. Rakob et al., Der Rundtempel am Tiber in Rom (1973); C. D'Onofrio, Castel S. Angelo (1971).

Caelius: A. M. Colini, “Storia e topografia del Celio nell'antiquità,” MemPontAcc 7 (1944); V. Santa Maria Scrinari, Egregiae Lateranorum Aedes (1967); id., RendPontAcc 41 (1968-69) 167-89 (Gardens of Domitia Lucilla, Domus A. Veri); G. M. Rossi, StudTopRom (1968) 113-24 (Nymphaeum in the house of the Laterani).

Esquiline, Aurelian Wall: M. Cagiano De Azevedo, RendPontAcc 40 (1967-68) 151-70 (Basilica of Iunius Bassus); G. Becatti, Edificio con opus sectile (Scavi di Ostia VI, 1969) 181-215 (Basilica of Iunius Bassus); P. Grimal, Les Jardins Romains (2d ed. 1969); J. A. Richmond, The City Wall of Imperial Rome (1930); L. G. Cozzi, Le porte di Roma (1968).

Maps: R. Lanciani, Forma Urbis Romae (1893-1901); G. Lugli & I. Gismondi, Forma Urbis Romae imperatorum aetate (1949); G. Lugli, Itinerario di Roma Antica (1970) pl. I: Ancient Rome; pl. II: The monumental center; pl. III: The southern Campus Martius; Capitolium XL (1965) 179:

The ancient remains of the Capitoline. E. NASH

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