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BALÁCAPUSZTA County of Veszprém, Hungary.

A peristyle villa begun in the second half of the 1st c. A.D. it was a large stone building, the floors covered with mosaic, and the walls with frescos crowned by stucco moldings. The heating system of the building ensured a pleasant warmth in the N colony and there was a bath complex attached to the main building. A wall enclosed the main buildings, stables, and agricultural buildings. The architecture of the villa—the main building and the bath—resembles villas of Italy and North Africa. The farm buildings do not differ from those used elsewhere in the province.

The main axis of the villa is enclosed by a semicircular room. Later reconstruction surrounded the building with corridors. Alterations resulting in the rebuilding of the inner rooms may be dated to the last third of the 1st c., to judge from the basic plan and some of the frescos, the dining room, the red-and-black room, the yellow-and-purple room, and the black room. Of the stuccos the serrated, pearl-like classical molding which belonged to the yellow-purple room, and the finely chiseled beam belonging to the black-red room, are also part of the early villa. From a later era come certain frescos, ceiling fragments, and certain mosaic floors. in the third period, the villa's exterior architecture was renewed with galleries built around the core of the building. This period can be placed between the end of the 2d c. and the first decades of the 3d. At this time the frescos were broken up and the debris was used to fill up the floor space under the galleries. The mosaic floors were still in use. in the first half of the 3d c., the villa took final shape and, with some small interior alterations, served until the end of the Roman era. The discovery of hearths and their remnants on some of the mosaic floors prove that the building was inhabited during the migrations. Faint traces point to the occupation of the Roman villa even during the early Middle Ages.


D. Laczkó & G. Rhé, Baláca (1912) 104 pp.; E. Thomas, Baláca. Mozaik, Freskó, Stukkó (1964) 80 pp.; id., Arch. Funde (1956) 214-19; id., Römische Villen . . . (1964) 73-107I; A. Kiss, “The mosaic pavements of the Roman villa at Baláca,” Acta Arch. Hung. 11 (1959) 159-236; T. Gedeon & A. Nemesics, “Technische Untersuchung der Fresken der Römischen Villa von Baláca,” VMMK (1961-65) 459-72.


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