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GÜNEY KALESI (“Kibyra Minor”) Cilicia Tracheia, Turkey.

Very probably at Güney Kalesi, about 19 km NW of Alânya, 48 km E of Side and 11 km from the coast. Kibyra is mentioned as a city of Pamphylia by pseudo-Skylax in the 4th c. B.C.; it is named in the Stadiasmus, and Strabo places “the coastland of the Kibyrates” close to Side. The site has long been sought, as the indications given by the ancient geographers are not consistent. The only precise location is that in the Stadiasmus (§ 212-14), which places it 109 stades E of Side, and this agrees with Strabo's indication. Coinage began in the 2d c. B.C. but did not continue into Imperial times, and apart from a mention by Ptolemy the city only reappears in the authorities in the 10th c. as giving its name to the Cibyrrhaeotic thema, extending from Miletos to Seleuceia. Constantine Porphyrogenitus (De Them. 14) calls it “a cheap and undistinguished township,” and observes that the thema was called after it by way of insult rather than praise, because of a haughty and self-willed attitude towards the imperial commands.

The ruins at Güney Kalesi, discovered in 1964, occupy two summits some 750 m above sea level, but are not well preserved. The city wall, of inferior masonry, stands in part some 6 m high, but the buildings within it are utterly ruined. The inscriptions, however, refer to a Caesareum and to games; they show also that the city possessed civic status down to the 3d c. A.D. Beyond the city wall to the W a third summit carries some tombs. The water supply was dependent on cisterns, spring water being scarce.


G. E. Bean & T. B. Mitford, Journeys in Rough Cilicia 1964-1968 (1970) 59-66.


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