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KALIANE (“Aiane”) Greece.

City between Servia and Kozani on the N bank of the Haliakmon, in the vicinity of Kaliani, which may echo the ancient name. Stephanos of Byzantium called it a city of Macedonia, named after Aianos son of Elymos, king of the Tyrrhenoi who immigrated to Macedonia, thus indicating that it belonged to Elimeia. Two walled enclosures have been noted, one NW of the village of Kteni, the other W of the village of Kaisaria; both have been identified as Aiane.

Kteni was chosen on the basis of inscriptions found there, especially a dedication. The badly damaged relief represents Pluto and Kerberos. There is also a funeral stele showing a man wearing the Macedonian kausia, poorly executed, but possibly Hellenistic. On the other hand the walls at Kaisaria have been identified with Aiane; one of several inscriptions found there mentions the city, and there is some evidence of the cults of Zeus and Herakles. More recent discoveries, however, suggest that the site is very close to Kaliani itself. No systematic excavation has been done except for salvage of burial sites. Earlier finds were sent to Kozani, but recently an archaeological collection has been established in Kaliani.

There are a number of burial sites in and around Kozani itself, still within the territory of Elimeia, though there is as yet no evidence for the habitation site, and no satisfactory evidence for giving a name to the place. Excavation of a large cemetery in the town has yielded finds ranging from late Mycenaean to Classical times: the 8th through the 5th c. are well represented in an assortment of metal objects ranging from pins and ornaments to weapons, furniture, and much funerary pottery. The finds are in the Kozani museum.

On a hill NE of Kozani is a shrine of Zeus Hypsistos.


W. M. Leake, Travels in Northern Greece III (1835) 304-5; L. Heuzey, “La ville d'Éané en Macédoine et son Sanctuaire de Pluton,” RA 18 (1868) 18-28MI; L. Heuzey & H. Daumet, Mission en Macédoine (1876) 285-98MI; A. Keramopoullos, “Anaskaphai kai ereunai en tē Anō Makedonia,” ArchEph (1933) 38-51MI; “Chronique des fouilles,” BCH 84 (1960) 782-86I. Principally Kozani: C. Mabreveas, “Ek tēs Elimeias kai tēs Eordaias. Arkhaiologikē Syllogē Kozanēs,” ArchEph (1936) 7-14; B. Kallipolitis, “Nekropolis Klassikōn Khronōn en Kozanē,” ibid. (1948-49) 85-111; (1950-51) 184PI; id., Excavation reports, Praktika (1950) 281-92PI; (1958) 96-102-'; P. Petsas, Excavation reports, ibid. (1960) 107-13PI; (1963) 55-58; (1965) 24-35 (Zeus Hypsistos)MPI; Ergon (1958) 85-90; (1960) 96-102; “Khronika,” ArchDelt 17, 2 (1961-62) 216; 19, 2 (1964) 361; 22, 2 (1967) 413-15; 23, 2 (1968) 349.


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