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PHARNAKEIA KERASOUS (Giresun) Pontus, Turkey.

A natural fortress and harbor on the S coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) in the former land of the Chalybes, it stood at the terminus of a route leading over the Pontic mountains (Paryadres Mons) from Armenia Minor. It was founded in newly conquered territory ca. 180 B.C. by Pharnakes I of Pontus, using citizens transferred from Kotyora. It was annexed to Galatia with the remainder of the Pontic kingdom in A.D. 64-65. The name Kerasous was used by Pharnakeia from the early 2d c. A.D.; the original Kerasous, 110 km farther E, had by then ceased to exist.

The city lay on a rocky promontory between two anchorages, of which the one or the other received shelter according to the direction of the wind. Some good lengths of the Hellenistic walls survive both on the summit and on the steep slopes running down to the sea.


W. J. Hamilton, Researches in Asia Minor, Pontus, and Armenia (1842) I 262-65.


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