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TELAMON (Talamonaccio) Italy.

In the province of Grosseto, an Etruscan town known for the battle fought with the Gauls in 225 B.C. (Polyb. 2.25-31). C. Marius landed here in 87 B.C. to renew his struggle with Sulla (Plut. Vit. Mar. 41). As punishment for this, Telamon appears to have been destroyed by Sulla's troops in 82 B.C. In 1888, when fortification work was being carried on, the remains of the burned city were uncovered. The ceramics and coins dated from the 7th to the 1st c. B.C. In 1892 the foundation walls of a temple built in 300 B.C. were found, along with terracotta architectural fragments and votive weapons. More recent excavation has indicated that it was a podium temple (12.9 x 22.6 m) oriented N-S with a single cella and a pronaos two columns deep. Before the entrance steps was a paved area with an altar.

The finds are in the Museo Archeologico in Florence. Of particular importance is a terracotta pediment covered with figures. It was found in 1892 and dates from ca. 170-150 B.C. The figures show the defeat of the Seven against Thebes.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

G. F. Gamurnini, “Talamone,” NSc (1888) 682-91; L. A. Milani, Il Museo Archeologico di Firenze (1912) 66-69, 257-60, pls. 114-16; A. Andrén, Architectural Terracottas from Etrusco-Italic Temples (1940) 227-38, pl. 82f; O. W. v. Vacano, “Die Figurenanordnung im Giebelrelief von Telamon,” RömMitt 76 (1969) 141-61; id., “Zum Grundriss des Tempels auf dem Talamonaccio,” Hommages à M. Renard (Collection Latomus vol. 113, 1969) 675-94; P. Somella, Antichi campi di battaglia in Italia (1967) 11-34.

O. W. v. VACANO

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