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1734. List of the chief verbs showing important differences of meaning between active and middle. It will be noted that the active is often transitive, the middle intransitive.

1. αἱρεῖν take; αἱρεῖσθαι choose.

2. ἀμύ_νειν τί τινι ward off something from some one, ἀμύ_νειν τινί help some one; ἀμύ_νεσθαί τι defend oneself against something, ἀμύ_νεσθαί τινα requite some one.

3. ἀποδοῦναι give back; ἀποδόσθαι sell (give away for one's profit).

4. ἅπτειν attach; ἅπτεσθαί τινος touch.

5. ἄρχειν begin, contrasts one beginner of an action with another, as ἄρχειν πολέμου take the aggressive, strike the first blow (bellum movere), ἄρχειν λόγου be the first to speak, ““ἦρχε χειρῶν ἀδίκωνhe began an unprovoked assaultL. 4.11; ἄρχεσθαι make one's own beginning, as contrasted with the later stages, as ἄρχεσθαι πολέμου begin warlike operations (bellum incipere), ἄρχεσθαι τοῦ λόγου begin one's speech. ““πολέμου οὐκ ἄρξομεν, ἀρχομένους δὲ ἀμυ_νούμεθαwe shall not take the initiative in the war, but upon those who take it up we shall retaliateT. 1.144.

6. γαμεῖν marry (of the man, ducere); γαμεῖσθαι marry (of the woman, nubere).

7. γράφειν νόμον propose a law (said of the maker of a law whether or not he is himself subject to it); γράφεσθαι γραφήν draw up an indictment for a public offence, γράφεσθαί τινα bring suit against some one (have him written down in the magistrates' records).

8. δανείζειν (make of anything a δάνος loan) i.e. put out at interest, lend; δανείζεσθαι (have a δάνος made to oneself) have lent to one, borrow at interest.

9. δικάζειν give judgment; δικάζεσθαι (δίκην τινί) go to law with a person, conduct a case (properly get some one to give judgment).

10. ἐπιψηφίζειν put to vote (of the presiding officer); ἐπιψηφίζεσθαι vote, decree (of the people).

11. ἔχειν hold; ἔχεσθαί τ<*>νος hold on to, be close to.

12. θύ_ειν sacrifice; θύ_εσθαι take auspices (of a general, etc.).

13. μισθοῦν (put a μισθός, rent, on anything) i.e. let for hire (locare); μισθοῦσθαι (lay a μισθός upon oneself) i.e. hire (conducere). Cp. 1723.

14. παύειν make to cease, stop (trans.); παύεσθαι cease (intr.). But παῦε λέγων stop talking.

15. πείθειν persuade; πείθεσθαι obey (persuade oneself); πέποιθα I trust.

16. τιθέναι νόμον frame or propose a law for others (said of the lawgiver, legem ferre or rogare); τίθεσθαι νόμον make a law for one's own interest, for one's own State (said of the State legislating, legem sciscere or iubere). αὐτοὺς (ἀγράφους νόμους) ““οἱ ἄνθρωποι ἔθεντο . . . θεοὺς οἶμαι τοὺς νόμους τούτους τοῖς ἀνθρώποις θεῖναιmen did not make the unwritten laws for themselves, but I think the gods made these laws for menX. M. 4.4.19.

17. τι_μωρεῖν τινι avenge some one, τι_μωρεῖν τινά τινι punish A for B's satisfaction; τι_μωρεῖσθαί τινα avenge oneself on (punish) some one.

18. τίνειν δίκην pay a penalty (poenas dare); τίνεσθαι δίκην exact a penalty (poenas sumere).

19. φυλάττειν τινά watch some one; φυλάττεσθαί τινα be on one's guard against some one.

20. χρᾶν give an oracle , and lend; χρᾶσθαι consult an oracle , and use.

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