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2083. With participles of opposition or concession (2066): καίπερ although, καί (infrequent), although καὶ ταῦτα (947) and that too. Thus, ““συμβουλεύω σοι καίπερ νεώτερος ὤνI give you advice though I am your juniorX. C. 4.5.32, ἀποπλεῖ οἴκαδε καίπερ μέσου χειμῶνος ὄντος he sailed off home though it was midwinter X. Ag. 2. 31, ““Κλέωνος καίπερ μανιώδης οὖσα ὑπόσχεσις ἀπέβηCleon's promise, insane though it was, was fulfilledT. 4.39, καὶ δοῦλος ὤν γὰρ τί_μιος πλουτῶν ἀνήρ for, slave though he be, the man of wealth is held in esteem E. fr. 142, ““ἀδικεῖς ὅτι ἄνδρα ἡμῖν τὸν σπουδαιότατον διαφθείρεις γελᾶν ἀναπείθων, καὶ ταῦτα οὕτω πολέμιον ὄντα τῷ γέλωτιyou do wrong in that you corrupt the most earnest man we have by tempting him to laugh, and that though he is such an enemy to laughterX. C. 2.2.16. On καίτοι see 2893 b.

a. In Homer the parts of καίπερ are often separated by the participle or an emphatic word connected with it: καὶ ἀχνύμενοί περ although distressed M 178. πέρ may stand alone without καί: ἀνάσχεο κηδομένη περ bear up, though vexed A 586. Both uses occur in tragedy. The part. with πέρ is not always concessive.

b. In a negative sentence, οὐδέ (μηδέ), with or without πέρ, takes the place of καί; as γυναικὶ πείθου μηδὲ τἀ_ληθῆ κλύων listen to a woman, though thou hearest not the truth E. fr. 440.

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