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2149. Verbal adjectives in -τέος express necessity. They admit two constructions:

1. The personal construction (-τέος, -τέα_, -τέον), passive in meaning, and emphasizing the subject.

2. The (more common) impersonal construction (-τέον, -τέα^, 1052), practically active in meaning, and emphasizing the action.

Both constructions are used with the copula εἰμί, which may be omitted. The agent—the person on whom the necessity rests— is expressed, if at all, by the dative (never by ὑπό and the genitive).

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