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2247. Many verbs of emotion state the cause more delicately with εἰ (ἐά_ν) if as a mere supposition than by ὅτι. The negative is μή or οὐ.

a. So with ἀγανακτῶ am indignant, ἄγαμαι am content, αἰσχρόν ἐστι it is a shame, αἰσχύ_νομαι am ashamed, ἄχθομαι take hard, δεινόν ἐστι it is a shame, δεινὸν ποιοῦμαι am indignant, θαυμάζω am astonished, μέμφομαι blame, φθονῶ am jealous, etc. The if clause is usually indicative, sometimes an unreal indicative, a subjunctive, or a potential optative. Thus, ““θαυμάζω εἰ μὴ βοηθήσετε ὑ_μῖν αὐτοῖςI am surprised if you will not help yourselvesX. H. 2.3.53, ““ἀγανακτῶ εἰ οὑτωσὶ_ νοῶ μὴ οἷός τ᾽ εἰμι εἰπεῖνI am grieved that I am thus unable to say what I meanP. Lach. 194a, ““δεινὸν ποιούμενοι εἰ τοὺς ἐπιβουλεύοντας σφῶν τῷ πλήθει μὴ εἴσονταιindignant that they could not discover those who were plotting against their commonsT. 6.60, ἄτοπον ἂν εἴη, εἰ μηδὲν μὲν ἐμοῦ λέγοντος αὐτοὶ βοᾶτε τὴν ἐπωνυμία_ν τῶν ἔργων . . . , ἐμοῦ δὲ λέγοντος ἐπιλέλησθε, καὶ μὴ γενομένης μὲν κρίσεως περὶ τοῦ πρά_γματος ἥλω ἄν, γεγονότος δὲ ἐλέγχου ἀποφεύξεται it would be absurd if, when I say nothing, you shout out the name of what he has done, but when I do speak, you forget it; and absurd if, while he should have been condemned when no investigation was instituted concerning the matter, he should yet get off now when the proof has been given Aes. 1.85 (cp. 2904 b), μὴ θαυμάζετε δ᾽ ἄ_ν τι φαίνωμαι λέγων do not be surprised if I seem to say something I. Ep. 6. 7, ““τέρας λέγεις, εἰ . . . οὐκ ἂν δύναιντο λαθεῖνit is a marvel you are telling if they could be undetectedP. Men. 91d.

b. After a past tense we have either the form of direct discourse or the optative, as in indirect discourse. Thus, ““ἐθαύμαζον εἴ τι ἕξει τις χρήσασθαι τῷ λόγῳ αὐτοῦI kept wondering if any one could deal with his theoryP. Ph. 95a, ““ἐπεῖπεν . . . ὡς δεινὸν εἴη εἰ μὲν . . . Ξανθία_ς ὑποκρι_νόμενος οὕτως . . . μεγαλόψυ_χος γένοιτοhe added that it was a shame if a man who played the rôle of Xanthias should prove himself so noble mindedAes. 2.157, ““ᾤκτι_ρον εἰ ἁλώσοιντοthey pitied them in case they should be capturedX. A. 1.4.7 (cp. 2622 a). Sometimes the construction used after a primary tense is retained after a secondary tense (X. C. 4.3.3).

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