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2579. Some verbs of saying are followed either by ὅτι or ὡς or by an infinitive (2017). In most cases the choice is optional with the writer. Affirmative clauses usually take the infinitive or ὅτι; but ὡς is apparently preferred to ὅτι when a writer wishes to mark a statement as an opinion, a pretext, as untrue, and so when the main clause is negative, or when the subordinate clause is negative (or both are negative). Thus, ““νομίζουσιν οἱ ἐκείνῃ ἄνθρωποι . . . ὡς Ἥφαιστος χαλκεύειthe local belief is that Hephaestus is working at his forgeT. 3.88, διαβαλὼν αὐτοὺς ὡς οὐδὲν ἀληθὲς ἐν νῷ ἔχουσιν slanderously attacking them on the score that their intentions were not sincere 5. 45, ““πολλάκις ἐθαύμασα τίσι ποτὲ λόγοις Ἀθηναίους ἔπεισαν οἱ γραψάμενοι Σωκράτην ὡς ἄξιος εἴη θανάτουI have often wondered with what possible arguments the accusers of Socrates succeeded in convincing the Athenians that he deserved deathX. M. 1.1.1, οὐ τοῦτο λέγω ὡς οὐ δεῖ ποτε καὶ ἐλά_ττονι ἔτι μορίῳ ἰέναι I do not say (this) that it is not ever necessary to attack the enemy with a still smaller detachment X. C. 5.4.20. ὅτι may be used of an untrue statement designed to create belief (S. El. 43).

a. Dependent statements in the optative in indirect discourse after verbs of saying are chiefly post-Homeric.

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