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899. Prepositional-phrase Compounds.—Many phrases made of a preposition and its object unite to form a compound and take on adjectival inflection. Such compounds are equivalent to the phrases in question with the idea of being or the like added.

ἄπ-οικος colonist (away from home: ἀπ᾽ οἴκου); ἐγχειρίδιος in the hand, dagger (ἐν χειρί); ἐγχώριος native (in the country: ἐν χώρᾳ); ἐπιθαλάττιος dwelling on the coast (ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ); ἐφέστιος on the hearth (ἐφ᾽ ἑστίᾳ); κατάγειος underground, cp. subterranean (κατὰ γῆς); παρά-δοξος contrary to opinion (παρὰ δόξαν); παρά-φρων out of one's mind, Lat. de-mens (παρὰ τὴν φρένα); ὑπ-εύθυ_νος under liability to give account (ὑπ᾽ εὐθύ_ναις); so φροῦδος gone (= πρὸ ὁδοῦ γενόμενος, cp. 124 a).

a. From such phrases are derived verbs and substantives: ἐγχειρίζω put into one's hands, entrust, διαχειρίζω have in hand, manage (διὰ χειρῶν), διαπα_σῶν octave-scale ( διὰ πα_σῶν χορδῶν συμφωνία_ the concord through all the notes). By analogy to ἐκποδών out of the way (ἐκ ποδῶν) come ἐμποδών in the way and ἐμπόδιος impeding, ἐμποδίζω impede.

b. The compounds of 899 represent bits of syntax used so frequently together that they have become adherent.

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