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917. Copula.—An indeterminate verb that serves simply to couple a predicate substantive or adjective to the subject is called a copula: Ξενοφῶν ἦν Ἀθηναῖος Xenophon was an Athenian.

a. The most common copulative verbs are εἶναι be and γίγνεσθαι become. Many other verbs serve as copulas: καθίστασθαι become, πεφυ_κέναι, ὑπάρχειν, πέλειν (poetical) be, δοκεῖν seem, φαίνεσθαι appear. καλεῖσθαι, ὀνομάζεσθαι, ἀκούειν, κλύειν (poetical) be called, τυγχάνειν, κυρεῖν (poet.) happen, turn out, αἱρεῖσθαι be chosen, νομίζεσθαι be regarded, κρί_νεσθαι be judged, and the like.

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