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124. A smooth stop (π, τ, κ), brought before the rough breathing by elision, crasis, or in forming compounds, is made rough, becoming an aspirate (φ, θ, χ). Cp. 16 a.

ἀφ᾽ οὗ for ἀπ) οὗ, νύχθ᾽ ὅλην for νύκτα) ὅλην (82); θἄ_τερον the other (69), θοἰμάτιον for τὸ ἱ_μάτιον the cloak (66); μεθί_ημι let go for μετά) ἵ_ημι, αὐθά_δης selfwilled from αὐτός self and ἁδεῖν please.

a. A medial rough breathing, passing over ρ, roughens a preceding smooth stop: φρουρός watchman from προ-ὁρος, φροῦδος gone from πρό and ὁδός, τέθριππον four-horse chariot (τετρ ¨ ἵππος).

124 D. New Ionic generally leaves π, τ, κ before the rough breathing: ἀπ᾽ οὗ, μετίημι, τοὔτερον. But in compounds (9 D.) φ, θ, χ may appear: μέθοδος method (μετά after + ὁδός way).

125. Two rough stops beginning successive syllables of the same word are avoided in Greek. A rough stop is changed into a smooth stop when the following syllable contains a rough stop.

a. In reduplication (441) initial φ, θ, χ are changed to π, τ, κ. Thus, πέφευγα for φε-φευ-γα perfect of φεύγω flee, τί-θη-μι place for θι-θη-μι, κέ-χη-να for χε-χη-να perf. of χάσκω gape.

b. In the first aorist passive imperative -θι becomes -τι after -θη-, as in λύ-θη-τι for λυ-θη-θι; elsewhere -θι is retained (γνῶθι).

c. In the aorist passive, θε- and θυ- are changed to τε- and τυ- in ἐ-τέ-θην was placed (τίθημι) and ἐ-τύ-θην was sacrificed (θύ_ω).

d. From the same objection to a succession of rough stops are due ἀμπέχω ἀμπίσχω clothe for ἀμφ-, ἐκε-χειρία_ truce for ἐχε-χειρια_ (from ἔχω and χείρ).

e. The rough breathing, as an aspirate (16 a), often disappeared when either of the two following syllables contains φ, θ, or χ. ἔχω have stands for ἔχω σεχω (119, cp. ἔ-σχον), the rough changing to the smooth breathing before a rough stop. The rough breathing reappears in the future ἕξω. Cp. ἴσχω restrain for ἱσχω from σι-σχ-ω, ἔδεθλον foundation, but ἕδος seat, Lat. sedes.

f. In θρίξ hair, gen. sing. τριχ-ός for θριχος, dat. pl. θριξί; ταχύς swift, comparative ταχί_ων (rare) or θά_ττων (θά_σσων) from θαχι_ων (112).

g. In ταφ- (τάφος tomb), pres. θάπ-τ-ω bury, fut. θάψω, perf. τέθαμ-μαι (85); τρέφω nourish, fut. θρέψω, perf. τέ-θραμ-μαι; τρέχω run, fut. θρέξομαι; τρυφ- (τρυφή delicacy), pres. θρύπτω enfeeble, fut. θρύψω; τύ_φω smoke, perf. τέ-θυ_μ-μαι.

N.—The two rough stops remain unchanged in the aorist passive ἐθρέφθην was nourished, ἐθρύφθην was enfeebled, ἐφάνθην was shown forth, ὠρθώθην was set upright, ἐθέλχθην was charmed, ἐκαθάρθην was purified; in the perfect inf. πεφάνθαι, κεκαθάρθαι, τεθάφθαι; in the imperatives γράφηθι be written, στράφηθι turn about, φάθι say.

126. Transfer of Aspiration.—Aspiration may be transferred to a following syllable: πάσχω for παθ-σκω (cp. 98).

126 D. Hdt. has ἐνθαῦτα there (ἐνταῦθα), ἐνθεῦτεν thence (ἐντεῦθεν), κιθών tunic (χιτών).

127. Some roots show variation between a final smooth and a rough stop; δέχομαι receive, δωροδόκος bribe-taker; ἀλείφω anoint, λίπος fat; πλέκω weave, πλοχυός braid of hair; and in the perfect, as ἦχα from ἄγω lead.

127 D. Hom. and Hdt. have αὖτις again (αὖθις), οὐκί not (οὐχί). All the dialects except Attic have δέκομαι.

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