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341. Origin.—Adverbs, like prepositions and conjunctions, were originally case forms, made from the stems of nouns and pronouns. Some of these nominal and pronominal stems have gone out of common use, so that only petrified forms are left in the adverbs. Some of these words were still felt to be live cases; in others no consciousness of their origin survived. Many adverbs show old suffixes joined to the stem or to a case form (342). It is sometimes uncertain whether we should speak of adverbs or of nouns with local endings.

Nominative (rare): πύξ with clenched fist, ἅπαξ once, ἀναμίξ pell-mell.

Genitive: ἕνης day after to-morrow, ἑξῆς next, ποῦ, οὗ where, αὐτοῦ in the very place, ἐκποδών out of the way (ἐκ ¨ ποδῶν); by analogy, ἐμποδών in one's way.

Dative: δημοσίᾳ at public cost, λάθρᾳ in secret, κοινῇ in common, etc. (1527 b), ἄλλῃ otherwise, πῇ how.

Accusative: very common, especially such adverbs as have the form of the accusative of neuter adjectives, as πολύ much, μι_κρόν a little, πρῶτον at first, τήμερον to-day, πολλά often. See 1606-1611.

Locative: οἴκο-ι at home (οἶκο-ς house), Ἰσθμο-ῖ at the Isthmus, ποῖ whither, and all adverbs in -οι. The -ι of the consonantal declension is properly the ending of the locative, as in Μαραθῶν-ι at Marathon; -οισι (234) in O stems, in contrast to -οις; -α_σι (-ησι) in Ā stems (215): θύρα_σι at the doors, Πλαταιᾶσι at Plataea, Ἀθήνησι at Athens; further in πάλαι long ago, ἐκεῖ there, πανδημεί in full force.

Instrumental: ἄνω above, κάτω below, οὔπω not yet, ὧ-δε thus (but the forms in -ω may be ablatives); κρυφῆ and λάθρα_ in secret.

Ablative: all adverbs in -ως, as ὡς as, οὕτως thus, ἑτέρως otherwise. Here, e.g. original ἑτερωδ (cp. Old Lat. altoōd, abl. of altus) became ἑτερω (133), which took on -ς from the analogy of such words as ἀμφίς parallel to ἀμφί.

342. Place.—To denote place the common endings are:—

-ι, -θι, -σι at, in to denote place where (locative). -ου, the sign of the genitive, is also common.

-θεν from to denote the place whence (ablative).

-δε (-ζε), -σε to, toward to denote place whither.

In the following examples poetical words are bracketed.

οἴκο-ι (οἴκο-θι) at homeοἴκο-θεν from homeοἴκαδε (οἶκόνδε) homeward
οἰκα- is an old accusative form.)
ἄλλο-θι elsewhereἄλλο-θεν from elsewhereἄλλο-σε elsewhither
or ἀλλ-αχ-οῦἀλλ-αχ-ό-θενἀλλ-αχ-ό-σε
ἀμφοτέρω-θι on bothἀμφοτέρω-θεν from bothἀμφοτέρω-σε to both sides
παντ-αχ-οῖ in everyπαντ-αχ-ό-θεν from everyπαντ-αχ-ό-σε in all
πάντ-ο-θεν (rare)πάντ-ο-σε
αὐτοῦ in the very placeαὐτό-θεν from the veryαὐτό-σε to the very place
ὁμοῦ at the same placeὁμό-θεν from the sameὁμό-σε to the same place
Ἀθήνη-σι at AthensἈθήνη-θεν from AthensἈθήναζε to Athens
Ὀλυμπία_-σι at OlympiaὈλυμπία_-θεν from OlympiaὈλυμπίαζε to Olympia

a. In -αζε, -δε is added to the accusative (1589), and stands for -ανς, the old acc. pl.,+-δε (Eng. TO). Cp. 26, 106. The other endings are added to the stem. -σε is usually added only to pronominal stems. -σι forms a locative plural. ο sometimes takes the place of α_ of the first declension (ῥίζοθεν from the root, stem ῥιζα_-), or is added to consonant stems. Words in -τερο- lengthen ο to ω. Between stem and ending αχ is often inserted.

b. -θεν may take the form -θε in poetry, and especially when the idea of whence is lost, as πρόσθε in front (134 D.). -θα is found in ἔνθα in all dialects. -θα for -θεν occurs in Aeolic and Doric.

c. Some local adverbs are made from prepositions, as ἄνω above, ἔξω outside, ἔσω within, κάτω below, πρόσθεν in front.

342 D. Hom. has many cases of the local endings, e.g. οὐρανό-θι in heaven, ἀγορῆ-θεν from the assembly; also after prepositions as a genitive case: ἐξ ἁλόθεν out of the sea, Ἰ_λιό-θι πρό before Ilium. Cp. ἐμέθεν, σέθεν, ἕθεν, 325 D. 1. -δε in ἅλα-δε to the sea, πόλιν-δε to the city, πεδίον-δε to the plain, Ἀιδόσ-δε to (the house of) Hades, ὅν-δε δόμον-δε to his house.

343. Manner.—Adverbs of manner ending in -ως have the accent and form of the genitive plural masculine with -ς in place of -ν.

πᾶςallπάντωνπάντωςin every way

a. Adverbs in -ως are not formed from the genitive plural, but are originally old ablatives from ο stems (341), and thence transferred to other stems. The analogy of the genitive plural assisted the transference.

344. Various Other Endings.—Adverbs have many other endings, e.g.:-α: ἅμα at the same time, μάλα very, τάχα quickly (in Attic prose perhaps). -ακις: πολλάκις many times, often, ἑκαστάκις each time, τοσαυτάκις so often, ὁσάκις as often as, πλειστάκις very often, ὀλιγάκις seldom, πλεονάκις more times. The forms without -ς (ὁσάκι, πολλάκι) are earlier, and -ς has been added by imitation of δίς, τρίς. -δην: συλλήβδην in short. -δον: ἔνδον within, σχεδόν almost. -ει: πανδημεί in full levy (341, locative). -τε: ὅτε when (Aeolic ὄτα, Dor. ὅκα). -τι, -στι: ἐθελοντί voluntarily, Ἑλληνιστί in Greek (fashion).

345. Comparison of Adverbs.—In adverbs derived from adjectives the comparative is the same as the neuter singular of the comparative of the adjective; the superlative is the same as the neuter plural of the superlative adjective.

ἧττον less (319, 2ἥκιστα
(adv. of ἀγαθός good

a. Adverbs of place ending in ω, and some others, retain ω in the comparative and superlative.


b. ἐγγύς near has ἐγγύτερον (-τέρω), ἐγγυτάτω (-τατα rare). πρῴ early has πρωϊαίτερον, πρωϊαίτατα.

c. There are some forms in -ως from comparatives: ἀσφαλεστέρως (ἀσφαλέστερον) more securely, βελτι_όνως (βέλτι_ον) better. Superlatives in -ον are usually poetic; as μέγιστον.

346. Correlative Adverbs.—Adverbs from pronominal stems often correspond in form and meaning. In the list on p. 102 poetic or rare words are in ().

a. The demonstratives in () are foreign to Attic prose except in certain phrases, as καὶ ὥς even thus, οὐδ᾽ (μηδ᾽) ὥς not even thus (cp. 180 c); ἔνθα μὲν . . . ἔνθα δέ here . . . there, ἔνθεν (μέν) καὶ ἔνθεν (δέ) from this side and that. ἔνθα and ἔνθεν are usually relatives, ἔνθα taking the place of οὗ where and οἷ whither, and ἔνθεν of ὅθεν whence.

b. τοτὲ μὲν . . . τοτὲ δέ is synonymous with ποτὲ μὲν . . . ποτὲ δέ.

c. οὖν (339 e) may be added for indefiniteness: ὁπωσοῦν in any way whatever, ὁποθενοῦν from what place soever. ποτέ is often used after interrogatives to give an intensive force, as in τίς ποτε who in the world (as qui tandem); also with negatives, as in οὔποτε never, οὐπώποτε never yet. Other negatives are οὐδαμοῦ nowhere, οὐδαμῇ in no way, οὐδαμῶς in no manner.

Interrogative:Indefinite Relative
Direct andIndefiniteDemonstrativeRelative Specificor Indirect
ποῦπούἔνθα) ἐνθάδε,οὗ whereὅπου where-
where?somewhereἐνταῦθα thereἔνθα whereever
ἐκεῖ yonder
πόθενποθέν fromἔνθεν) ἐνθένδε,ὅθεν whence
whence?some placeἐντεῦθεν thenceἔνθεν whenceὁπόθεν whence-
Placeἐκεῖθεν fromsoever
ποῖποί toἔνθα) ἐνθάδε,οἷ whitherὅποι whither-
whither?some placeἐνταῦθα thitherἔνθα whithersoever
ἐκεῖσε thither
πότεποτέ someτότε thenὅτε whenὁπότε when-
when?time, everever
Timeπηνίκα atτηνίκα) ) atἡνίκα at whichὁπηνίκα at
what time?τηνικάδε ) thattimewhich time
τηνικαῦτα ) time
πῇ whichπῄ someτῇ) τῇδε, ταύτῃ in whichὅπῃ in which
Wayway? how?way,this way, thusway, asway, as
πῶς how?πώςτώς), (ὥς) ὧδε,ὡς as, howὅπως how
somehowοὕτω (ς) thus,
Mannerso, in this way
ἐκείνως in that

346 D. 1. Hom. has (Aeolic) ππ in ὅππως, ὁππότε; Hdt. has κ for the π-forms, e.g. κοῦ, κού, ὅκου, κότε, etc. Hdt. has ἐνθαῦτα, ἐνθεῦτεν for ἐνταῦθα, ἐντεῦθεν (126 D.).

2. Poetic are πόθι for ποῦ, ὅθι for οὗ, ἦμος when, which way, where, etc.

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