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496. From the verb-stem (or theme) the present stem is formed in several ways. All verbs are arranged in the present system according to the method of forming the present stem from the verbstem. Verbs are named according to the last letter of the verb-stem (376): 1. Vowel Verbs, 2. Liquid Verbs (including liquids and nasals), 3. Stop Verbs.



497. The present stem is formed from the verb-stem in five different ways. There are, therefore, five classes of present stems. The verb-stem is sometimes the present stem, but usually it is strengthened in different ways. A sixth class consists of irregular verbs, the present stem of which is not connected with the stem or stems of other tenses.


498. Presents of the Simple Class are formed from the verb-stem with or without the thematic vowel.

499. (I) Presents with the thematic vowel (ω-verbs). The present stem is made by adding the thematic vowel όε- to the verb-stem, as λύ_-ω, παιδεύ-ω, παύ-ω, μέν-ω, πείθ-ω, φεύγ-ω, and the denominative verbs τι_μά-ω, φιλέ-ω, βασιλεύ-ω. For the personal endings, see 463 ff. For the derivation of many of these verbs, see 522.

500. The final vowel of the verb-stem is long in the present indicative, but either long or short in the other tense-stems, of the following verbs in -υω or -ιω.

1. a. Verbs in -υω generally have υ_ in Attic in the present; as λύ_ω loose, δύ_ω go under, θύ_ω sacrifice (almost always), φύ_ω make grow (usually). Also in ἀλύ_ω, ἀρτύ_ω, βρενθύ_ομαι, γηρύ_ομαι, δακρύ_ω (once υ^), ἱδρύ_ω, ἰσχύ_ω, καττύ_ω, κνύ_ω,, κωκύ_ω, κωλύ_ω (usually), μηνύ_ω, ὀπύ_ω (ὀπυίω), πτύ_ω, ῥύ_ομαι, στύ_ομαι, τρύ_ω, ὕ_ει; possibly in εἰλύομαι, ἠμύω, μύω, ξύω, φλύω; ἐλινύω, μηρύομαι, πληθύω (once υ^), φι_τύω. ὠρύω (υ_^) is doubtful.

b. -υω has υ short in ἀνύω, ἀρύω, βρύω, κλύω (but κλῦθι), μεθύω, and in all verbs in -νυω.

500. 1. D. Homer has short υ in ἀλύω, ἀνύω, βρύω, δύω, ἐρύω, ἠμύω, τανύω, φύω, and in all denominative verbs except ἐρητύ_οντο and ἐπι_θύ_ουσι, where υ_ is metrically necessary; long υ in ξύ_ω, πτύ_ω, ὕ_ω; anceps in θυ?́ω sacrifice (υ_ doubtful), θύ_ω rush on, rage, λυ?́ω (rarely λύ_ω), ποιπνύω, ῥύομαι. Pindar has υ short in θύω sacrifice, ἰσχύω, λύω, μανύω, ῥύω, ῥύομαι, in presents in -νυω, and in denominative verbs.

2. Hom. has ι_ in the primitives πί_ομαι and χρί_ω; but τι?́ω and τί_ω (τείω?); -ι^ω in denominatives (except μήνι_ε B 769). κονί_ω, ὀί_ομαι are from κονις-[ιγλιδε]ω, ὀις-[ιγλιδε]ομαι.

3. Where Attic has υ_, ι_ in the present, and Epic υ^, ι^, the former are due to the influence of υ_, ι_ in the future and aorist.

2. Attic has ι_ in primitive verbs in -ιω, as πρί_ω, χρί_ω, χλί_ω, but ι^ in τίω. Denominative verbs have ι_; but ἐσθι?́ω.

501. Several verbs with medial ι_, υ_ in the present, show ι^ or ι_, υ^ or υ_ in some other tense or tenses. Thus, θλί_βω press τέθλιφα, πνί_γω choke ἐπνίγην, τρί_βω rub τέτριφα ἐτρίβην, τύ_φω raise smoke ἐτύφην, ψύ_χω cool ἐψύχην.

502. Verb-stems having the weak grades α, ι, υ, show the strong grades η, ει, ευ in the present; as τήκ-ω (τα^κ-) melt, λείπω (λιπ-) leave, φεύγω (φυγ-) flee.

a. To this class belong also λήθω, σήπω, τέθηπα am astonished, 2 aor. ἔταφον, ἀλείφω, (δέδοικα, 703), εἴκω (ἔοικα), (εἴωθα, 563 a), ἐρείκω, ἐρείπω, πείθω, στείβω, στείχω, φείδομαι; ἐρεύγομαι, κεύθω, πεύθομαι, τεύχω.

503. Present Stems in -εο´ε- for ευόε-.—The strong form ευ before the thematic vowel became εϝ (ευ) and then ε (20 a, 43) in the verbs θέω run θεύσομαι, νέω swim ἔνευσα, πλέω sail ἔπλευσα, πνέω breathe ἔπνευσα, ῥέω flow ῥεύσομαι, χέω pour κέχυκα, κέχυμαι, ἐχύθην.

503 D. These verbs end in -ευω in Aeolic (πνεύω etc.). Epic πλείω, πνείω have ει by metrical lengthening (28 D.).

504. (II) Presents without the thematic vowel (μι-verbs). The personal ending is added directly to the verb-stem, which is often reduplicated. The verb-stem shows different vowel grades, strong forms η, ω in the singular, weak forms ε (α), ο in the dual and plural. Thus τί-θη-μι, τί-θε-μεν; ἵ-στη-μι for σι-στη-μι (= σι-στα_-μι), ἵ-στα-μεν; δί-δω-μι, δί-δο-μεν.

a. All verbs in μι (enumerated 723 ff) belong to this class except those in -νυ_μι (523 f) and -νημι (523 g).


505. The present stem is formed by adding -τόε- to the verbstem, which ends in π, β, or φ. The verb-stem is ascertained from the second aorist (if there is one) or from a word from the same root.

κόπτω cut,verb-stem κοπ-in 2 aor. pass. ἐ-κόπ-ην.
βλάπτω injure,“ “ βλαβ-“ “ “ ἐ-βλάβ-ην.
καλύπτω cover,“ “ καλυβ-καλύβ-η hut.
ῥί_πτω throw,“ “ ῥιφ-, ῥι_φ-“ 2 aor. pass. ἐ-ρρίφ-ην.

a. ἀστράπτω lighten, χαλέπτω oppress may be from -π[ιγλιδε]ω (117, 507).

506. Some of the verbs of this class add ε in the present or other tenses, as ῥι_πτέω throw, πεκτέω comb, τύπτω strike τυπήσω.


507. The present stem is formed by adding -[ιγλιδε]όε- to the verb-stem and by making the necessary euphonic changes (109-116).


508. Dental Verb-stems.—Verb-stems in δ unite with [ιγλιδε] to form presents in -ζω (116), as φράζω tell (φραδ-[ιγλιδε]ω), ἐλπίζω hope (ἐλπιδ-), κομίζω carry (κομιδ-ή a carrying), ὄζω smell (ὀδ-μή odour), καθέζομαι seat myself (ἕδ-ος seat).

a. σῴζω save (for σω-ιζω) forms its tenses partly from the verb-stem σω-, partly from the verb-stem σωι-.

508 D. Aeolic has -σδω for -ζω.

509. Stems in γ.—Some verbs in -ζω are derived from stems in γ preceded by a vowel; as ἁρπάζω seize for ἁρπαγ-[ιγλιδε]ω (cp. ἁρπαγ-ή seizure), κρά_ζω cry out (2 aor. ἔκραγον). See 116, other examples 623 γ III.

a. νίζω wash makes its other tenses from the verb-stem νίβ- (fut. νίψω, cp. Hom. νίπτομαι).

510. A few verbs with stems in γγ lose one γ and have presents in -ζω; as κλάζω scream (κλαγγ-ή), fut. κλάγξω; σαλπίζω sound the trumpet ἐσάλπιγξα (also λύζω sob, πλάζω cause to wander).

511. ῥεγ[ιγλιδε]ω, ἐργ[ιγλιδε]ω yield ῥέζω do (poetic) and ἔρδω (Ionic and poetic). See 116.

512. Most verbs in -ζω are not formed from stems in δ or γ, but are due to analogy. See 516, 623 γ III, 866. 6.


513. Palatal Verb-stems.—Stems ending in κ or χ unite with [ιγλιδε] to form presents in -ττω (-σσω).

φυλάττω guard from φυλακ-[ιγλιδε]ω (φυλακ-ή guard (112)); κηρύ_ττω proclaim from κηρυ_κ-[ιγλιδε]ω (κῆρυξ, κήρυ_κ-ος); ταράττω disturb from ταραχ-[ιγλιδε]ω (ταραχ-ή confusion).

a. πέττω cook is for πεκ-[ιγλιδε]ω; all other tenses are made from πεπ-.

514. Several verbs showing forms in γ seem to unite γ with [ιγλιδε] to form presents in -ττω (-σσω.) Thus ἀλλάττω change, μάττω knead, πλήττω strike (with the 2 aorists passive ἠλλάγ-ην, ἐμάγ-ην, ἐπλήγ-ην), πρά_ττω do (2 perf. πέπρα_γα, 571), τάττω arrange (τα_γ-ός commander).

a. So δράττομαι grasp, νάττω compress (515 b), νύττω push, πτύσσω fold, σάττω load, συ_ρίττω pipe, σφάττω kill, φράττω fence. πρά_ττω has the late perf. πέπρα_χα.

515. Some presents in -ττω (-σσω) are formed from stems in τ, θ like those from κ, χ.

Poet. ἐρέσσω row (ἐρέτ-ης rower) aor. ἤρεσα; poet. κορύσσω arm (κόρυς κόρυθ-ος helmet), imperf. ἐκόρυσσε.

a. So also βλίττω take honey, πάττω sprinkle, πτίττω pound, and perhaps πλάττω form; also ἀφάσσω Hdt., and poetic ἱ_μάσσω, λαφύσσω, λίσσομαι.

b. νάττω compress (ναγ-, ναδ-) ἔναξα, νένασμαι and νέναγμαι. Cp. 514 a.

516. Formations by Analogy.—a. As γ ¨ [ιγλιδε] and δ ¨ [ιγλιδε] unite to form ζ, none of the verbs in -ττω can be derived from -γ[ιγλιδε]ω or -δ[ιγλιδε]ω. Since the future and aorist of verbs in -ζω might often seem to be derived from stems in κ, χ, or τ, θ, uncertainty arose as to these tenses: thus the future σφάξω (σφαγ-σω) from Epic σφάζω slay (σφαγ-[ιγλιδε]ω) was confused in formation with φυλάξω (φυλακ-σω), and a present σφάττω was constructed like φυλάττω. Similarly, Attic ἁρπάσω (-ομαι) for Epic ἁρπάξω; and so in place of (poetic) ἁρμόζω fit (ἁρμοδ-) the form ἁρμόττω was constructed.

516 D. Homer has many cases of this confusion; as πολεμίζω (πολεμιδ-) but πολεμίξω. In Doric the ξ forms from -ζω verbs are especially common, as χωρίζω separate, χωριξῶ, ἐχώριξα. παίζω sport has (late) ἔπαιξα.


517. (I) Presents in -λλω are formed from verb-stems in λ, to which [ιγλιδε] is assimilated (110). Thus, ἀγγέλλω announce (ἀγγελ-[ιγλιδε]ω), στέλλω send (στελ-[ιγλιδε]ω).

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