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1612. A compound expression, consisting of the accusative of an abstract substantive and ποιεῖσθαι, τίθεσθαι, ἔχειν, etc., is often treated as a simple verb; and, when transitive, governs the accusative: τὴν χώρα_ν καταδρομαῖς λεία_ν ἐποιεῖτο ( = ἐλῄζετο) he ravaged the country by his incursions T. 8.41, Ἰ_λίου φθορὰ_ς ψήφους ἔθεντο ( = ἐψηφίσαντο) they voted for the destruction of Ilium A. Ag. 814, μομφὴν ἔχω ἓν μὲν πρῶτά σοι ( = ἓν μέμφομαι) I blame thee first for one thing E. Or. 1069, τὰ δ᾽ ἐν μέσῳ λῆστιν ἴσχεις ( = ἐπιλανθάνει) what lies between thou hast no memory of S. O. C. 583. See 1598. So with other periphrases in poetry: τέκνα μηκύ_νω λόγον ( = μακρότερον προσφωνῶ) I speak at length to my children S. O. C. 1120, εἰ δέ μ᾽ ὧδ᾽ ἀεὶ λόγους ἐξῆρχες ( = ἤρχου λέγειν) if thou didst always (begin to) address me thus S. El. 556.


1613. Verbs meaning to appoint, call, choose, consider, make, name, show, and the like, may take a second accusative as a predicate to the direct object.

““στρατηγὸν αὐτὸν ἀπέδειξεhe appointed him generalX. A. 1.1.2, πατέρα ἐμὲ ἐκαλεῖτε you were wont to call me father 7. 6. 38, ““αἱρεῖσθαι αὐτὸν τὸν Ἰνδῶν βασιλέα_ δικαστήνto choose the king of the Indians himself to be arbitratorX. C. 2.4.8, ““οὐ γὰρ δίκαιον οὔτε τοὺς κακοὺς μάτην χρηστοὺς νομίζειν οὔτε τοὺς χρηστοὺς κακούςfor it is not just to consider bad men good at random, or good men badS. O. T. 609, ““Τι_μόθεον στρατηγὸν ἐχειροτόνησανthey elected Timotheus generalX. H. 6.2.11, ““τὴν σι_γήν σου ξυγχώρησιν θήσωI shall consider your silence as consentP. Crat. 435b, ““ἑαυτὸν δεσπότην πεποίηκενhe has made himself masterX. C. 1.3.18, ““ἐὰ_ν ἐμὲ σὸν θεράποντα ποιήσῃif you make me your servantX. O. 7.42, ““εἰς τοὺς Ἕλληνας σαυτὸν σοφιστὴν παρέχωνshowing yourself a sophist before the GreeksP. Pr. 312a, ““εὐμαθῆ πάντα παρέχεινto render everything easy to learnX. O. 20.14. Cp. 1579.

1614. The absence of the article generally distinguishes the predicate noun from the object: ““ἐπηγγέλλετο τοὺς κόλακας τοὺς αὑτοῦ πλουσιωτάτους τῶν πολι_τῶν ποιήσεινhe promised to make his flatterers the richest of the citizensL. 28.4.

1615. Especially in Plato and Herodotus, after verbs signifying to name, to call, the predicate noun may be connected with the external object by (a redundant) εἶναι (911); ““σοφιστὴν ὀνομάζουσι τὸν ἄνδρα εἶναιthey call the man a sophistP. Pr. 311e, ““ἐπωνυμία_ν ἔχει σμι_κρός τε καὶ μέγας εἶναιhe is called both short and tallP. Ph. 102c. This is due to the analogy of verbs signifying to think or say (1041).

1616. A predicate accusative may stand in apposition to the object: ἔδωκα δωρειὰ_ν τὰ λύτρα I gave them the price of their ransom as a free gift D. 19.170.

1617. This use is the source of many adverbial accusatives (993, 1606 ff.).

1618. Passive: both the object and the predicate accusative of the active construction become nominative (1743) in the passive construction: αὐτὸς στρα- ““τηγὸς ᾑρέθηhe himself was chosen generalL. 12.65, ““αὐτοὶ νομοθέται κληθήσονταιthey shall themselves be called lawgiversP. L. 681d.


1619. Many verbs take both an internal and an external object.

1620. The external object refers to a person, the internal object (cognate accusative, 1563 ff.) refers to a thing. Here the internal object stands in closer relation to the verb.

““ πόλεμος ἀείμνηστον παιδεία_ν αὐτοὺς ἐπαίδευσεthe war taught them a lesson they will hold in everlasting remembranceAes. 3.148, ““τοσοῦτον ἔχθος ἐχθαίρω σεI hate thee with such an hateS. El. 1034, ““Μέλητός με ἐγράψατο τὴν γραφὴν ταύτηνMeletus brought this accusation against meP. A. 19b, ἕλκος, τό μιν βάλε the wound that he dealt him E 795 (1578), ““Μιλτιάδης τὴν ἐν Μαραθῶνι μάχην τοὺς βαρβάρους νι_κήσα_ςMiltiades who won the battle at Marathon over the barbariansAes. 3.181, τὸν ἄνδρα τύπτειν τὰ_ς πληγά_ς to strike the man the blows Ant. 4. γ. 1, ““καλοῦσί με τοῦτο τὸ ὄνομαthey give me this appellationX. O. 7.3.

1621. Passive (1747): ““πᾶσαν θεραπεία_ν θεραπευόμενοςreceiving every manner of serviceP. Phae. 255a, ““τύπτεσθαι πεντήκοντα πληγά_ςto be struck fifty blowsAes. 1.139, κρίσις, ἣν ἐκρίθη the sentence that was pronounced upon him L. 13.50, ““τὰ_ς μάχα_ς, ὅσα_ς Πέρσαι ἡττήθησαν ἐῶI omit the battles in which the Persians were defeatedI. 4.145, ““ὄνομα ἓν κεκλημένοι Σικελιῶταιcalled by the one name of SiciliansT. 4.64.

1622. So with verbs signifying to do anything to or say anything of a person (1591): ““πολλὰ ἀγαθὰ ὑ_μᾶς ἐποίησενhe did you much goodL. 5.3, ““ταυτί_ με ποιοῦσιthat's what they are doing to meAr. Vesp. 696, ““τὰ τοιαῦτα ἐπαινῶ Ἀ_γησίλα_ονI praise Agesilaus for such meritsX. Ages. 10.1, τοὺς Κορινθίους πολλά τε και<*> κακὰ ἔλεγε he said many bad things about the Corinthians Hdt. 8.61. For the accusative of the thing, εὖ (καλῶς), κακῶς may be substituted; and εἰς and πρός with the accusative occur.

1623. The accusative of the person may depend on the idea expressed by the combination of verb and accusative of the thing (1612); as in ““τοὺς πολεμίους εἰργάσθαι κακάto have done harm to the enemyL. 21.8 (here εἰργάσθαι of itself does not mean to do anything to a person).

1624. When the dative of the person is used, something is done for (1474), not to him: ““πάντα ἐποίησαν τοῖς ἀποθανοῦσινthey rendered all honours to the deadX. A. 4.2.23. εἰς or πρός with the accusative is also employed.

1625. Passive of 1622: ““ὅσα ἄλλα πόλις ἠδικεῖτοall the other wrongs that the State has sufferedD. 18.70.

1626. Verbs of dividing (νέμειν, κατανέμειν, διαιρεῖν, τέμνειν) may take two accusatives, one of the thing divided, the other of its parts (cognate accus.). Thus, ““Κῦρος τὸ στράτευμα κατένειμε δώδεκα μέρηCyrus divided the army into twelve divisionsX. C. 7.5.13. εἰς or κατά may be used with the accusative of the parts.

1627. Passive: ““διῄρηται ἀγορὰ_ τέτταρα μέρηthe Agora is divided into four partsX. C. 1.2.4. εἰς and κατά may be used with the accusative of the parts.


1628. Verbs signifying to ask, clothe or unclothe, conceal, demand, deprive, persuade, remind, teach, take two objects in the accusative, one of a person, the other of a thing.

““οὐ τοῦτ᾽ ἐρωτῶ σεthat's not the question I'm asking youAr. Nub. 641; ““χιτῶνα τὸν ἑαυτοῦ ἐκεῖνον ἠμφίεσεhe put his own tunic on himX. C. 1.3.17, ““ἰδοὺ δ᾽ Ἀπόλλων αὐτὸς ἐκδύ_ων ἐμὲ χρηστηρία_ν ἐσθῆταlo Apollo himself divests me of my oracular garbA. Ag. 1269; ““τὴν θυγατέρα ἔκρυπτε τὸν θάνατον τοῦ ἀνδρόςhe concealed from his daughter her husband's deathL. 32.7; ““Κῦρον αἰτεῖν πλοῖαto ask Cyrus for boatsX. A. 1.3.14, ““ὡς ἐγώ ποτέ τινα ἐπρα_ξάμην μισθὸν ᾔτησαthat I ever exacted or asked pay of any oneP. A. 31c; ““τούτων τὴν τι_μὴν ἀποστερεῖ μεhe deprives me of the value of these thingsD. 28.13; ““ὑ_μᾶς τοῦτο οὐ πείθωI cannot persuade you of thisP. A. 37a; ““ἀναμνήσω ὑ_μᾶς καὶ τοὺς κινδύ_νουςI will remind you of the dangers alsoX. A. 3.2.11; ““οὐδεὶς ἐδίδαξέ με ταύτην τὴν τέχνηνnobody taught me this artX. O. 19.16.

1629. Both person and thing are equally governed by the verb. The accusative of the person is the external object; the accusative of the thing is sometimes a cognate accusative (internal accusative).

1630. Some of these verbs also take the genitive or dative, or employ prepositions. Thus ἐρωτᾶν τινα περί τινος, αἰτεῖν (αἰτεῖσθαί) τι παρά τινος, ἀποστερεῖν or ἀφαιρεῖσθαί τινά τινος (τινός τι) (1394), or τινί τι (1483); ἀναμιμνῄσκειν τινά τινος (1356); παιδεύειν τινά τινι or τινὰ εἰς (or πρός) with the accusative.

1631. The poets employ this construction with verbs of cleansing (a form of depriving): ““χρόα νίζετο ἅλμηνhe was washing the brine from his skinζ 224, αἷμα κάθηρον Σαρπηδόνα cleanse the blood from Sarpedon II 667. And with other verbs (in tragedy), e.g. τι_μωρεῖσθαι avenge on, μετελθεῖν seek to avenge on, μετιέναι execute judgment on, ἐπισκήπτειν charge.

1632. Passive (1747): ““ὑπὸ βασιλέως πεπρα_γμένος τοὺς φόρουςhaving had the tribute demanded of him by the kingT. 8.5, ““ὅσοι ἵππους ἀπεστέρηνταιall who have been deprived of their horsesX. C. 6.1.12, ““οὐκ ἐπείθοντο τὰ ἐσαγγελθένταthey would not credit the newsHdt. 8.81, ““μουσικὴν παιδευθείςhaving been instructed in musicP. Menex. 236a (here μουσικῇ is possible), ““οὐδὲν ἄλλο διδάσκεται ἄνθρωπος ἐπιστήμηνman is taught nothing else except knowledgeP. Men. 87c.

1633. The accusative of extent (1580) is freely used in the same sentence with other accusatives, as ““ὑπερενεγκόντες τὸν Λευκαδίων ἰσθμὸν τὰ_ς ναῦςhaving hauled the ships across the isthmus of LeucasT. 3.81.

On the accusative of the whole and part, see 985; on the accusative subject of the infinitive, see 1972 ff.; on the accusative absolute, see 2076. See also under Anacoluthon.

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