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1636. Prepositions define the relations of a substantival notion to the predicate.

a. All prepositions seem to have been adverbs originally and mostly adverbs of place; as adverbs they are case-forms. Several are locatives, as περί.

1637. The prepositions express primarily notions of space, then notions of time, and finally are used in figurative relations to denote cause, agency, means, manner, etc. Attic often differs from the Epic in using the prepositions to denote metaphorical relations. The prepositions define the character of the verbal action and set forth the relations of an oblique case to the predicate with greater precision than is possible for the cases without a preposition. Thus, ““μετὰ δὲ μνηστῆρσιν ἔειπεhe spake among the suitorsρ 467 specifies the meaning with greater certainty than μνηστῆρσιν ἔειπε. So Ἑλλήνων φόβος may mean the fear felt by the Greeks or the fear caused by the Greeks; but with ἐξ or παρά (cp. X. A. 1.2.18, Lyc. 130) the latter meaning is stated unequivocally. The use of a preposition often serves to show how a construction with a composite case (1279) is to be regarded (genitive or ablative; dative, instrumental, or locative).

1638. Development of the Use of Prepositions.—

a. Originally the preposition was a free adverb limiting the meaning of the verb but not directly connected with it: κατ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἕζετο down he sate him A 101. In this use the preposition may be called a ‘preposition-adverb.’

b. The preposition-adverb was also often used in sentences in which an oblique case depended directly on the verb without regard to the prepositionadverb. Here the case is independent of the preposition-adverb, as in βλεφάρων ἄπο δάκρυα πί_πτει from her eyelids, away, tears fall ξ 129. Here βλεφάρων is ablatival genitive and is not governed by ἀπό, which serves merely to define the relation between verb and noun.

c. Gradually the preposition-adverb was brought into closer connection either (1) with the verb, whence arose compounds such as ἀποπί_πτειν, or (2) with the noun, the preposition-adverb having freed itself from its adverbial relation to the verb. In this stage, which is that of Attic prose, the noun was felt to depend on the preposition. Hence arose many syntactical changes, e.g. the accusative of the limit of motion (1588) was abandoned in prose for the preposition with the accusative.

Prepositions have three uses.

1639. (I) Prepositions appear as adverbs defining the action of verbs.

1640. The preposition-adverb usually precedes the verb, from which it is often separated in Homer by nouns and other words: ἡμῖν ἀπὸ λοιγὸν ἀμῦναι to ward off destruction from (for) us A 67, πρὸ γὰρ ἧκε θεά_ the goddess sent her forth A 195, ἔχεν κάτα γαῖα the earth held him fast B 699.

1641. So, as links connecting sentences, πρὸς δὲ καί and καὶ πρός and besides, ἐπὶ δέ and besides, μετὰ δέ and next, thereupon (both in Hdt.), ἐν δέ and among the number (Hdt.).

1642. The verb (usually ἐστί or εἰσί, rarely εἰμί) may be omitted: ““οὐ γάρ τις μέτα τοῖος ἀνήρfor no such man is among themφ 93. Cp. 944.

1643. The preposition-adverb may do duty for the verb in parallel clauses: ἄνδρες ἀνέσταν, ἂν μὲν ἄρ᾽ Ἀτρεΐδης . . . ἂν δ᾽ ἄρα Μηριόνης the men rose up, rose up Atreides, rose up Meriones Ψ 886. So in Hdt.

1644. (II) Prepositions connect verbs and other words with the oblique cases of nouns and pronouns.

1645. It is often impossible to decide whether the preposition belongs to the verb or to the noun. Thus, ἐκ δὲ Χρυ_σηὶς νηὸς βῆ A 439 may be Chryseïs went out of the ship or Chryseïs went-out-from (ἐξέβη) the ship. When important words separate the prep.-adv. from the noun, the prep.-adv. is more properly regarded as belonging with the verb, which, together with the prep.-adv., governs the noun: ἀμφὶ δὲ χαῖται ὤμοις ἀ_ΐσσονται and his mane floats-about his shoulders Z 509. The Mss. often vary: τοῖσιν ἐγὼ μεθ᾽ ὁμί_λεον (or μεθομί_λεον) with these I was wont to associate A 269.

1646. (III) Prepositions unite with verbs (less frequently with nouns and other prepositions) to form compounds. Cp. 886 ff.

a. From this use as a prefix the name ‘preposition’ (πρόθεσις praepositio) is derived. The original meaning of some prepositions is best seen in compounds.

1647. Improper prepositions (1699) are adverbs used like prepositions, but incapable of forming compounds. The case (usually the genitive) following an improper preposition depends on the preposition alone without regard to the verb; whereas a true preposition was attached originally, as an adverb, to a case depending directly on the verb.

1648. The addition of a preposition (especially διά, κατά, σύν) to a verbal form may mark the completion of the action of the verbal idea (perfective action). The local force of the preposition is here often lost. So διαφεύγειν succeed in escaping, καταδιώκειν succeed in pursuing, συντελεῖν accomplish, carry into effect (τελεῖν do, perform).

1649. Two or more prepositions may be used with one verb, either sepa rately, as adverbs, or in composition with the verb. Thus, στῆ δὲ παρέξ (or παρ᾽ ἐξ) he stood forth beside him Λ 486. When two prepositions of like meaning are used in composition, that preposition precedes which has the narrower range: συμμετέχειν take part in with, ἀμφιπεριστέφεσθαι to be put round about as a crown. When two prepositions are used with one noun, the noun usually depends on the second, while the first defines the second adverbially; as ἀμφὶ περὶ κρήνην round about a spring B 305. It is often uncertain whether or not two prepositions should be written together.

a. Such compound prepositions are ἀμφιπερί, παρέξ, ὑπέκ, ἀπέκ, διέκ, ἀποπρό, διαπρό, περιπρό. Improper prepositions may be used with true prepositions, as μέχρι εἰς τὸ στρατόπεδον as far as (into) the camp X. A. 6.4.26.

1650. Tmesis (τμῆσις cutting) denotes the separation of a preposition from its verb, and is a term of late origin, properly descriptive only of the post-epic language, in which preposition and verb normally formed an indissoluble compound. The term ‘tmesis’ is incorrectly applied to the language of Homer, since in the Epic the prep.-adv. was still in process of joining with the verb.

1651. In Attic poetry tmesis occurs chiefly when the preposition is separated from the verb by unimportant words (particles, enclitics), and is employed for the sake of emphasis or (in Euripides) as a mere ornament. Aristophanes uses tmesis only to parody the style of tragic choruses.

1652. Hdt. uses tmesis frequently in imitation of the Epic; the intervening words are ὦν ( = οὖν), enclitics, δέ, μὲν . . . δέ, etc.

1653. In Attic prose tmesis occurs only in special cases: ἀντ᾽ εὖ ποιεῖν (πάσχειν) and σὺν εὖ (κακῶς) ποιεῖν (πάσχειν). Thus, ““ὅσους εὖ ποιήσαντας πόλις ἀντ᾽ εὖ πεποίηκενall whom the city has requited with benefits for the service they rendered itD. 20.64. Here εὖ πεποίηκεν is almost equivalent to a single notion.

1654. The addition of a preposition to a verb may have no effect on the construction, as in ἐκβῆναι τῆς νεώς, whereas βῆναι τῆς νεώς originally, and still in poetry, can mean go from-the-ship; or it may determine the construction, as in ““περιγενέσθαι ἐμοῦto surpass meD. 18.236. Prose tends to repeat the prefixed preposition: ἐκβῆναι ἐκ τῆς νεώς T. 1.137.

1655. A preposition usually assumes the force of an adjective when compounded with substantives which do not change their forms on entering into composition, as σύνοδος a national meeting (ὁδός). Otherwise the compound usually gets a new termination, generally -ον, -ιον neuter, or -ίς feminine, as ἐνύπνιον dream (ὕπνος), ἐπιγουνίς thigh-muscle (γόνυ).

1656. The use of prepositions is, in general, more common in prose than in poetry, which retained the more primitive form of expression.

1657. A noun joined by a preposition to its case without the help of a verb has a verbal meaning: ““ἀπὸ πα_σῶν ἀρχῶν ἐλευθερία_freedom from all ruleP. L. 698a (cp. ἐλευθεροῦν ἀπό τινος).

1658. In general, when depending on prepositions expressing relations of place, the accusative denotes the place (or person) toward which or the place over which, along which motion takes place, the dative denotes rest in or at, the genitive (ablative) passing from. Thus, ““ἥκω παρὰ σέI have come to youT. 1.137, ““οἱ παρ᾽ ἑαυτῷ βάρβαροιthe barbarians in his own serviceX. A. 1.1.5, παρὰ βασιλέως πολλοὶ πρὸς Κῦρον ἀπῆλθον many came over from the king to Cyrus 1. 9. 29. The true genitive denotes various forms of connection.

1659. Constructio Praegnans.a. A verb of motion is often used with a preposition with the dative to anticipate the rest that follows the action of the verb: ἐν τῷ ποταμῷ ἔπεσον they fell (into and were) in the river X. Ages. 1.32. This use is common with τιθέναι, ἱδρύ_ειν, καθιστάναι, etc., and with tenses of completed action which imply rest; as οἱ ἐν τῇ νήσῳ ἄνδρες διαβεβηκότες the men who had crossed to (and were in) the island T. 7.71.

b. A verb of rest is often followed by a preposition with the accusative to denote motion previous to or following upon the action of the verb: παρῆσαν εἰς Σάρδεις (they came to Sardis and were in the city) they arrived at Sardis X. A. 1.2.2, ““ἐς Κυ_^ρήνην ἐσώθησανthey were saved by reaching CyreneT. 1.110, ᾑρέθη πρεσβευτὴς εἰς Λακεδαίμονα he was chosen ambassador (to go) to Lacedaemon X. H. 2.2.17. Cp. 1692. 1. a.

1660. Stress is often laid on (a) the starting-point or (b) the goal of an action.

a. καταδήσα_ς ἀπὸ δένδρων τοὺς ἵππους tying his horses to (from) trees X. H. 4.4.10. By anticipation of the verbal action (attraction of the prep. with the article): ““τὴν ἀπὸ στρατοπέδου τάξιν ἔλιπενhe deserted his post in the armyAes. 3.159, οἱ ἐκ τῆς ἀγορᾶς καταλιπόντες τὰ ὤνια ἔφυγον the market-people (οἱ ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ) left their wares and fled X. A. 1.2.18.

b. With verbs of collecting (ἀθροίζειν, συλλέγειν) and enrolling (ἐγγράφειν): εἰς πεδίον ἀθροίζονται they are mustered into) the plain X. A. 1.1.2, εἰς ἄνδρας ἐγγράψαι to enrol into) the list of men D. 19.230.

1661. So with adverbs: ὅπον ἐληλύθαμεν where ( = whither, ὅποι) we have gone X. C. 6.1.14, ὅθεν ἀπελίπομεν, ἐπανέλθωμεν let us return to the point whence ( = where, ὅπου) we left off P. Ph. 78b, ἀγνοεῖ τὸν ἐκεῖθεν πόλεμον δεῦρο ἥξοντα he does not know that the war in that region will come hither ( = τὸν ἐκεῖ πόλεμον ἐκεῖθεν) D. 1.15.

1662. Some adverbs and adverbial phrases meaning from are used with reference to the point of view of the observer: ἑκατέρωθεν on either side, ἔνθεν καὶ ἔνθεν on this side and that, ἐκ δεξιᾶς on the right (a dextra), οἱ ἀπὸ τῆς σκηνῆς the actors, τὸ ἐκ τοῦ ἰσθμοῦ τεῖχος, τὸ ἐς τὴν Παλλήνην τεῖχος the wall (seen) from the isthmus, the wall toward (looking to) Pallene T. 1.64 (of the same wall).

1663. Position.—The preposition usually precedes its noun. It may be separated from it

a. By particles (μέν, δέ, γέ, τέ, γάρ, οὖν) and by οἶμαι I think: ἐν οὖν τῇ πόλει P. R. 456d, εἰς δέ γε οἶμαι τὰ_ς ἄλλα_ς πόλεις to the other cities I think 568 c.

Note that the order τὴν μὲν χώρα_ν (1155) usually becomes, e.g. πρὸς μὲν τὴν χώρα_ν or πρὸς τὴν χώρα_ν μέν. Demonstrative μέν and δέ, when dependent on a preposition, regularly follow the preposition, and usually with order reversed (1109): ἐν μὲν ἄρα τοῖς συμφωνοῦμεν, ἐν δὲ τοῖς οὔ in some things then we agree, but not in others P. Phae. 263b.

b. By attributives: ““εἰς Καΰστρου πεδίονto the plain of the CaysterX. A. 1.2.11.

c. By the accusative in oaths and entreaties (with πρός): πρός σε τῆσδε μητρός by my mother here I implore thee E. Phoen. 1665; cp. per te deos oro and see 1599.

N.—A preposition is usually placed before a superlative and after ὡς or ὅτι qualifying the superlative: ““ὡς ἐπὶ πλεῖστον τοῦ ὁμί_λουover the very greatest part of the throngT. 2.34. πολύ, πάνυ, μάλα may precede the preposition and its case: ““πολὺ ἐν πλείονι αἰτίᾳwith far better reasonT. 1.35.

1664. In poetry a preposition is often placed between an adjective and its substantive; very rarely in prose (““τοιᾷδε ἐν τάξειin the following mannerP. Criti. 115c).

1665. περί is the only true preposition that may be placed after its case in Attic prose: ““σοφία_ς πέριabout wisdomP. Phil. 49a, ““ὧν ἐγὼ οὐδὲν οὔτε μέγα οὔτε μι_κρὸν πέρι ἐπαΐωabout which I understand nothing either much or littleP. A. 19c. When used with two substantives πέρι is placed between them: ““τοῦ ὁσίου τε πέρι καὶ τοῦ ἀνοσίουconcerning both that which is holy and that which is unholyP. Euth. 4e. πέρι occurs very often in Plato, only once in the orators and possibly twice in Xenophon. On anastrophe, see 175.

a. ἕνεκα and χάριν (usually) and ἄνευ (sometimes) are postpositive. The retention of the postpositive use of περί may be due to the influence of ἕνεκα. In poetry many prepositions are postpositive.


1666. The preposition in the second of two closely connected clauses may be different from that used in the first clause either (1) when the relation is essentially the same or (2) when it is different. Thus (1) ““ἔκ τε τῆς Κερκύ_ρα_ς καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς ἠπείρουfrom Corcyra and the mainlandT. 7.33, and (2) οὔτε κατὰ γῆν οὔτε διὰ θαλάσσης neither by land nor by (the help of the, the medium of the) sea 1. 2. Cp. 1668.


1667. a. For the sake of emphasis or to mark opposition and difference, a preposition is repeated with each noun dependent on the preposition: ““κατά τε πόλεμον καὶ κατὰ τὴν ἄλλην δίαιτανin the pursuit of war and in the other occupations of lifeP. Tim. 18c.

b. A preposition is used with the first noun and omitted with the second when the two nouns (whether similar or dissimilar in meaning) unite to form a complex: περὶ τοῦ δικαίου καὶ ἀρετῆςconcerning the justice of our cause and the honesty of our intentionsT. 3.10.

c. In poetry a preposition may be used only with the second of two nouns dependent on it: ““Δελφῶν κἀ_πὸ Δαυλία_ςfrom Delphi and DauliaS. O. T. 734.

1668. In contrasts or alternatives expressed by , . . . , καὶ . . . καί, etc., the preposition may be repeated or omitted with the second noun: ““καὶ κατὰ γῆν καὶ κατὰ θάλαττανboth by land and by seaX. A. 1.1.7, ““πρὸς ἐχθρὸν φίλονto foe or friendD. 21.114.

1669. When prepositions of different meaning are used with the same noun, the noun is repeated; thus neither upon (the earth) nor under the earth is οὔτ᾽ ἐπὶ γῆς οὔθ᾽ ὑπὸ γῆς P. Menex. 246d.

1670. In explanatory appositional clauses (988) the preposition may be repeated for the sake of clearness or emphasis; as ““ἐκ τούτων οἱ ὀνομαστοὶ γίγνονται, ἐκ τῶν ἐπιτηδευσάντων ἕκασταthe men of mark come from those who have practised each artP. Lach. 183c, and commonly after demonstratives. The preposition is not repeated when such an appositional clause is closely connected with what precedes: εἰκὸς μηδὲ νομίσαι περὶ ἑνὸς μόνου, δουλεία_ς ἀντ᾽ ἐλευθερία_ς, ἀγωνίζεσθαι nor should you think that you are contending for a single issue alone: to avert slavery instead of maintaining your freedom T. 2.63. A preposition is usually not repeated before descriptive appositional clauses (987): περὶ χρημάτων λαλεῖς, ἀβεβαίου πρά_γματος you are talking about wealth, an unstable thing Com. frag. 3. 38 (No. 128).

1671. Before a relative in the same case as a noun or pronoun dependent on a preposition, the preposition is usually omitted: ““κατὰ ταύτην τὴν ἡλικία_ν ἦν ἣν ἐγὼ νῦνhe was at that age at which I now amD. 21.155, φιλεῖται ὑπὸ ὧν ( = τούτων ὧν) ““φιλεῖταιis loved by whom it is lovedP. Euth. 10c. But the preposition is repeated if the relative precedes: ““πρὸς τις πέφυ_κε, πρὸς τοῦτο ἕνα πρὸς ἓν ἕκαστον ἔργον δεῖ κομίζεινit is necessary to set each individual to some one work to which he is adapted by natureP. R. 423d.

1672. In Plato a preposition is often omitted in replies: ἡττώμενοςὑπὸ τίνος; φήσει. τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ, φήσομεν overcome—by what? he will say. By the good, we shall say Pr. 355 c.

1673. The preposition is usually omitted with the main noun or pronoun when it is used in a clause of comparison with ὡς (rarely ὥσπερ) as: ““δεῖ ὡς περὶ μητρὸς καὶ τροφοῦ τῆς χώρα_ς βουλεύεσθαιthey ought to take thought for their country as their mother and nurseP. R. 414e; so, usually, when the two members are closely united: ““ὡς πρὸς εἰδότ᾽ ἐμὲ σὺ τἀ_ληθῆ λέγεspeak the truth to me as to one who knowsAr. Lys. 993. The preposition is often omitted in the clause with ὡς (ὥσπερ) as, than: ““οἳ παρ᾽ οὐδὲν οὕτως ὡς τὸ τοιαῦτα ποιεῖν ἀπολώλα_σινwho owe their ruin to nothing so much as to such a course of actionD. 19.263, ““περὶ τοῦ μέλλοντος μᾶλλον βουλεύεσθαι τοῦ παρόντοςto deliberate about the future rather than the presentT. 3.44.

1674. A preposition with its case may have the function of the subject, or the object, of a sentence; or it may represent the protasis of a condition.

Subject: ““ἔφυγον περὶ ὀκτακοσίουςabout eight hundred took to flightX. H. 6.5.10; (gen. absol.) συνειλεγμένων περὶ ἑπτακοσίους, λαβὼν αὐτοὺς καταβαίνει when about seven hundred had been collected he marched down with them 2. 4. 5. Object: ““διέφθειραν ἐς ὀκτακοσίουςthey killed about eight hundredT. 7.32. Protasis: ““ἐπεὶ διά γ᾽ ὑ_μᾶς αὐτοὺς πάλαι ἂν ἀπωλώλειτεfor had it depended on your selves you would have perished long agoD. 18.49 (cp. 2344).


1675. Use of the Prepositions in Attic Prose.—

With the accusative only: ἀνά, εἰς.

With the dative only: ἐν, σύν.

With the genitive only: ἀντί, ἀπό, ἐξ, πρό.

With the accusative and genitive: ἀμφί, διά, κατά, μετά, ὑπέρ.

With accusative, genitive, and dative: ἐπί, παρά, περί, πρός, ὑπό.

a. With the dative are also used in poetry: ἀνά, ἀμφί (also in Hdt.), μετά. ἀπό (ἀπύ), ἐξ (ἐς) take the dative in Arcadian and Cyprian.

b. The genitive is either the genitive proper (of the goal, 1349, 1350, etc.) or the ablatival genitive.

c. The dative is usually the locative or the instrumental, rarely the dative proper (as with ἐπί and πρός of the goal).

1676. Ordinary Differences in Meaning.—

ἀμφί, περίconcerninground about, near
διάthroughowing to
κατάagainstalong, over, according to
ὑπέρabove, in behalf ofover, beyond

ἐπίononto, toward, for
παράfromwith, nearto, contrary to
πρόςon the side ofat, besidesto, toward
ὑπόby, underunderunder

1677. Certain prepositions are parallel in many uses; e.g. ἀνά and κατά, ἀντί and πρό, ἀπό and ἐκ, ἀμφί and περί, ὑπέρ and περί, ἐπί and πρός, σύν and μετά.

1678. The agent is expressed by different prepositions with the genitive:

ὑπό of persons and things personified (1698. 1. N. 1): the normal usage in Attic prose.

παρά: here the agent is viewed as the source. The action is viewed as starting near a person, or on the part of a person.

διά through: the intermediate agent.

ἀπό: indirect agent and source (rare) to mark the point of departure of the action. Chiefly in Thuc.

ἐξ: chiefly in poetry and Hdt. In Attic prose of emanation from a source.

πρός: to mark the result as due to the presence (before) of a person; chiefly in poetry and Hdt.

1679. Means is expressed by διά with the genitive (the normal usage in Attic prose), ἀπό, ἐξ, ἐν, σύν. Motive is expressed by ὑπό (gen.), διά (accus.), ἕνεκα.

1680. Prepositions in composition (chiefly ἀπό, διά, κατά, σύν) may give an idea of completion to the action denoted by the verb (1648).

a. For the usage after compound verbs see 1382 ff., 1545 ff., 1559.



1681. ἀμφί (cp. ἄμφω, ἀμφότερος, Lat. ambi-, amb-, am-) originally on both sides (either externally only, or inside and outside), hence about. Cp. the use of περί (1693) throughout. Chiefly poetic, Ionic, and Xenophontic. In Attic prose chiefly with the accusative.

1. ἀμφί with the Genitive

Local (very rare and doubtful): ““οἱ ἀμφὶ ταύτης οἰκέοντες τῆς πόλιοςdwellers round about this cityHdt. 8.104 (only here). Cause: about, concerning: ““ἀμφὶ σῆς λέγω παιδόςI speak about thy childE. Hec. 580, ““ἀμφὶ ὧν εἶχον διαφερόμενοιquarrelling about what they hadX. A. 4.5.17.

2. ἀμφί with the Dative

Local: ““ἀμφ᾽ ὤμοισιν ἔχει σάκοςhe has a shield about his shouldersΛ 527. Cause: ““φοβηθεὶς ἀμφὶ τῇ γυναικίafraid on account of his wifeHdt. 6.62, ἀμφὶ φόβῳ by reason of (encompassed by) terror E. Or. 825; Means: ἀμφὶ σοφίᾳwith the environment of poetic art’ Pind. P. 1. 12. Often in Pindar.

3. ἀμφί with the Accusative

Local: ““ἀμφὶ Μί_λητονabout MiletusX. A. 1.2.3, ““ἔδραμον ἀμφ᾽ Ἀχιλῆαthey ran around AchillesΣ 30; temporal: ““ἀμφὶ δείληνtowards eveningX. A. 2.2.14. Number: ἀμφὶ τούς δισχι_λίους about two thousand 1. 2. 9; of occupation with an object: ““ἀμφὶ δεῖπνον εἶχενhe was busy about dinnerX. C. 5.5.44.

a. οἱ ἀμφί τινα the attendants, followers of a person, or the person himself with his attendants, etc.: ““ἀνὴρ τῶν ἀμφὶ Κῦρον πιστῶνone of the trusty adherents of CyrusX. A. 1.8.1, οἱ ἀμφὶ Χειρίσοφον Chirisophus and his men 4. 3. 21, ““οἱ ἀμφὶ Πρωταγόρα_νthe school of ProtagorasP. Th. 170c. This last phrase contains the only use of ἀμφί in Attic prose outside of Xenophon.

4. ἀμφί in Composition

Around, about' ἀμφιβάλλειν throw around (on both sides), ἀμφιλέγειν dispute (speak on both sides).


1682. ἀνά (Lesb. ὀν, Lat. an- in anhelare, Eng. on): originally up to, up (opposed to κατά). Cp. ἄνω.

1. ἀνά with the Dative

Local only (Epic, Lyric, and in tragic choruses): ἀνὰ σκήπτρῳ upon a staff A 15.

2. ἀνά with the Accusative

Up along; over, through, among (of horizontal motion). Usually avoided by Attic prose writers except Xenophon (three times in the orators).

a. Local: To a higher point: ““ἀνὰ τὸν ποταμόνup streamHdt. 1.194 (cp. κατὰ τὸν ποταμόν). Extension: ἀνὰ στρατόν through the camp A 10, ἀνὰ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν over the whole earth X. Ag. 11. 16, βασιλῆας ἀνὰ στόμ᾽ ἔχων having kings in thy mouth B 250 (cp. διὰ στόματος ἔχειν).

b. Extension in Time: ““ἀνὰ νύκταthrough the nightΞ 80. See c.

c. Other relations: Distributively: ““ἀνὰ ἑκατὸν ἄνδραςby hundredsX. A. 3.4.21, ““ἀνὰ πᾶσαν ἡμέρα_νdailyX. C. 1.2.8. Manner: ἀνὰ κράτος with all their might (up to their strength) X. A. 1.10.15 (better Attic κατὰ κράτος), ““ἀνὰ λόγονproportionatelyP. Ph. 110d.

3. ἀνά in Composition

Up (ἀνίστασθαι stand up, ἀναστρέφειν turn upside down), back (ἀναχωρεῖν go back, ἀναμιμνῄσκειν remind), again (ἀναπνεῖν breathe again, ἀναπειρᾶσθαι practise constantly), often with a reversing force force (ἀναλύ_ειν unlcose).


1683. ἀντί: originally in the face of, opposite to; cp. ἄντα, ἐναντίος, Lat. ante (with meaning influenced by post), Germ. Antwort, ‘reply.’

1. ἀντί with the Genitive only

Local: ἀνθ᾽ ὧν ἑστηκότες standing opposite to (from the point of view of the speaker, i.e. behind) which (pine-trees) X. A. 4.7.6. In other meanings: Instead of, for, as an equivalent to: ““ἀντὶ πολέμου εἰρήνηpeace instead of warT. 4.20, ““τὰ παρ᾽ ἐμοὶ ἑλέσθαι ἀντὶ τῶν οἴκοιto prefer what I have to offer you here instead of what you have left at homeX. A. 1.7.4, ““τὴν τελευτὴν ἀντὶ τῆς τῶν ζώντων σωτηρία_ς ἠλλάξαντοthey exchanged death for the safety of the livingP. Menex. 237a; in return for, hence ““ἀνθ᾽ ὅτουwhereforeS. El. 585; for πρός in entreaty: ““σ᾽ ἀντὶ παίδων τῶνδε ἱκετεύομενwe entreat thee by these children hereS. O. C. 1326.

2. ἀντί in Composition

Instead, in return (ἀντιδιδόναι give in return), against, in opposition to (ἀντιλέγειν speak against).


1684. ἀπό (Lesb. etc. ἀπύ) from, off, away from; originally of separation and departure. Cp. Lat. ab, Eng. off, of.

1. ἀπό with the Genitive only

a. Local: ““καταπηδήσα_ς ἀπὸ τοῦ ἵππουleaping down from his horseX. A. 1.8.28, ἐθήρευεν ἀπὸ ἵππου he used to hunt (from a horse) on horseback 1. 2. 7, ““ἀπὸ θαλάσσηςat a distance from the seaT. 1.7. Figuratively: ““ἀπὸ θεῶν ἀρχόμενοιbeginning with the godsX. A. 6.3.18.

b. Temporal: ἀφ᾽ ἑσπέρα_ς after evening began (after sundown) X. A. 6.3.23, ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτοῦ σημείου on the same signal 2. 5. 32, ἀπὸ τῶν σί_των after meals X. R. L. 5.8, ἀφ᾽ οὗ since.

c. Other relations: (1) Origin, Source: in prose of more remote ancestry: τοὺς μὲν ἀπὸ θεῶν, τοὺς δ᾽ ἐξ αὐτῶν τῶν θεῶν γεγονότας some descended (remotely) from gods, others begotten (directly) of the gods themselves I. 12.81. (This distinction is not always observed.) Various other relations may be explained as source.

(2) Author: as agent with passives and intransitives, when an action is done indirectly, through the influence of the agent (ὑπό of the direct action of the agent himself). Not common, except in Thuc. (chiefly with πρἀ_ττεσθαι, λέγεσθαι, and verbs of like meaning): ““ἐπρά_χθη ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν οὐδὲν ἔργονnothing was done under their ruleT. 1.17. The startingpoint of an action is often emphasized rather than the agent: ““ἀπὸ πολλῶν καὶ πρὸς πολλοὺς λόγοι γιγνόμενοιspeeches made by many and to manyT. 8.93.

(3) Cause (remote): ““ἀπὸ τούτου τοῦ τολμήματος ἐπῃνέθηhe was praised in consequence of this bold deedT. 2.25, ““ταῦτα οὐκ ἀπὸ τύχης ἐγίγνετο, ἀλλ᾽ ἀπὸ παρασκευῆς τῆς ἐμῆςthis happened not from chance but by reason of the preparations I madeL. 21.10.

(4) Means, Instrument: ““στράτευμα συνέλεξεν ἀπὸ χρημάτωνhe raised an army by means of moneyX. A. 1.1.9; rarely of persons: ““ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν βλάψαιto do injury by means of themT. 7.29.

(5) Manner: ““ἀπὸ τοῦ προφανοῦςopenlyT. 1.66.

(6) Conformity: ““ἀπὸ τοῦ ἴσουon a basis of equalityT. 3.10, ἀπὸ ξυμμαχία_ς αὐτόνομοι independent by virtue of (according to) an alliance 7. 57.

N.—ἀπό with gen. is sometimes preferred to the simple gen., often for emphasis: ““οἱ λόγοι ἀφ᾽ ὑ_μῶνthe words that proceed from youT. 6.40, ὀλίγοι ἀπὸ πολλῶν a few of the many 1. 110 (cp. 1317 a). Thuc. has many free uses of ἀπό.

2. ἀπό in Composition

From, away, off (ἀπιέναι go away, ἀποτειχίζειν wall off), in return, back (ἀποδιδόναι give back what is due, ἀπαιτεῖν demand what is one's right). Separation involves completion (hence ἀπανα_λίσκειν utterly consume, ἀποθύ_ειν pay off a vow), or privation and negation (ἀπαγορεύειν forbid, ἀποτυγχάνειν miss). Often almost equivalent to an intensive (ἀποφάναι speak out, ἀποδεικνύναι point out, ἀποτολμᾶν dare without reserve).


1685. διά (Lesb. ζά) through, originally through and out of, and apart (separation by cleavage), a force seen in comp. (cp. Lat. dis-, Germ. zwi-schen).

1. διά with the Genitive

a. Local: through and out of (cp. Hom. διέκ, διαπρό), as ““δι᾽ ὤμου ἔγχος ἦλθενthe spear went clear through his shoulderΔ 481, ἀκοῦσαι διὰ τέλους to listen from beginning to end Lyc. 16. Through, but not out of: διὰ πολεμία_ς (γῆς) ““πορεύεσθαιto march through the enemy's countryX. Hi. 2.8 and often in figurative expressions: ““διὰ χειρὸς ἔχεινto controlT. 2.13, διὰ στόματος ἔχειν to have in one's mouth (be always talking of) X. C. 1.4.25 (also ἀνὰ στόμα).

b. Temporal: of uninterrupted duration, as ““διὰ νυκτόςthrough the nightX. A. 4.6.22, ““διὰ παντόςconstantlyT. 2.49.

c. Intervals of Space or Time: ““διὰ δέκα ἐπάλξεωνat intervals of ten battlementsT. 3.21, ““διὰ χρόνουafter an intervalL. 1.12, intermittently Aes. 3.220, ““διὰ πολλοῦat a long distanceT. 3.94.

d. Other relations: Means, Mediation (per): ““αὐτὸς δι᾽ ἑαυτοῦipse per seD. 48.15, ““διὰ τούτου γράμματα πέμψα_ςsending a letter by this manAes. 3.162. State or feeling: with εἶναι, γίγνεσθαι, ἔχειν, of a property or quality: ““διὰ φόβου εἰσίthey are afraidT. 6.34, δι᾽ ἡσυχία_ς εἶχεν he kept in quiet 2. 22, ἐλθεῖν ἡμῖν διὰ μάχης to meet us in battle 2. 11, ““αὐτοῖς διὰ φιλία_ς ἰέναιto enter into friendship with themX. A. 3.2.8. Manner: ““διὰ ταχέωνquicklyT. 4.8.

2. διά with the Accusative

a. Local: of space traversed, through, over (Epic, Lyric, tragic choruses): διὰ δώματα through the halls A 600; διὰ νύκτα Θ 510 is quasi-temporal.

b. Cause: owing to, thanks to, on account of, in consequence of (cp. propter, ob): ““διὰ τοὺς θεοὺς ἐσῳζόμηνI was saved thanks to the godsD. 18.249, τι_μώμενος μὴ δι᾽ ἑαυτόν, ὰλλὰ διὰ δόξαν προγόνων honoured, not for himself, but on account of the renown of his ancestors P. Menex. 247b. So in εἰ μὴ διά τινα (τι) had it not been for in statements of an (unsurmounted) obstacle: ““φαίνονται κρατήσαντες ἂν τῶν βασιλέως πρα_γμάτων, εἰ μὴ διὰ Κῦρονit seems they would have got the better of the power of the king, had it not been for CyrusI. 5.92.

c. διά is rarely used (in place of ἕνεκα) to denote a purpose or object: ““διὰ τὴν σφετέρα_ν δόξανfor the sake of their honourT. 2.89, ““δι᾽ ἐπήρειανfor spiteD. 39.32 (cp. ““διὰ νόσον ἕνεκα ὑγιεία_ςon account of disease in order to gain healthP. Lys. 218e).

d. διά with gen. is used of direct, διά with accus. of indirect, agency (fault, merit, of a person, thing, or situation). διά with gen. is used of an agent employed to bring about an intended result; διά with accus. is used of a person, thing, or state beyond our control (accidental agency). (1) Persons: ““ἔπρα_ξαν ταῦτα δι᾽ Εὐρυμάχουthey effected this by the mediation of EurymachusT. 2.2, τὰ διὰ τούτους ἀπολωλότα what has been lost by (the fault of) these men D. 6.34. The accus. marks a person as an agent not as an instrument. (2) Things: νόμοι, δι᾽ ὧν ἐλευθέριος βίος παρασκευασθήσεται laws, by means of which a life of freedom will be provided X. C. 3.3.52, διὰ τοὺς νόμους βελτί_ους γιγνόμενοι ἄνθρωποι men become better thanks to the laws 8. 1. 22. Sometimes there is little difference between the two cases: δι᾽ ὧν ἅπαντ᾽ ἀπώλετο D. 18.33, δι᾽ οὓς ἅπαντ᾽ ἀπώλετο 18. 35.

N.—διά with gen. ( = through) is distinguished from the simple dative ( = by): δι᾽ οὗ ὁρῶμεν καὶ ἀκούομεν P. Th. 184c.

e. For διά with accus. to express the reason for an action, the dative is sometimes used (1517): ““τοῖς πεπρα_γμένοις φοβούμενος τοὺς Ἀθηναίουςfearing the Athenians by reason of what had happenedT. 3.98. The dative specifies the reason less definitely than διά with the accusative.

f. When used in the same sentence, the dative may express the immediate, διά with the accus. the remoter, cause: ““ἀσθενείᾳ σωμάτων διὰ τὴν σι_τοδεία_ν ὑπεχώρουνthey gave ground from the fact that they were weak through lack of foodT. 4.36.

g. διά with accus. contrasted with ὑπό with gen.: φήσομεν αὐτὸ δι᾽ ἐκεῖνα ὑπὸ τῆς αὑτοῦ κακία_ς ἀπολωλέναι we shall say that it (the body) is destroyed on account of those (remoter) causes (as badness of food) by its own evil (immediately) P. R. 609e.

3. διά in Composition

Through, across, over (διαβαίνειν cross), apart, asunder (διακόπτειν cut in two, διακρί_νειν discernere, διαφέρειν differ, διαζυγνύναι disjoin), severally (διαδιδόναι distribute).

δια- often denotes intensity, continuance, or fulfilment (διαμένειν remain to the end, διαφθείρειν destroy completely). δια- is common in the reciprocal middle (1726), as in διαλέγεσθαι converse; often of rivalry (οἱ διαπολι_τευόμενοι rival statesmen, διακοντίζεσθαι contend in throwing the javelin).

εἰς, ἐς

1686. εἰς, ἐς into, to, opposed to ἐξ; from ἐν ¨ ς (cp. Lat. abs from ab + s). See on ἐν. On εἰς with the genitive by ellipsis, see 1302.

1. εἰς with the Accusative only

In the Old Attic alphabet (2 a), generally used in Attica in the fifth century, ΕΣ was written, and this may be either εἰς or ἐς. In the fourth century ΕΙΣ was generally written. In Thuc. ἐς is printed, but its correctness may be doubted; other Attic prose writers use εἰς, the poets εἰς or (less frequently) ἐς. It is not true that in poetry ἐς is used only before consonants, εἰς only before vowels.

a. Local: of the goal: ““Σικελοὶ ἐξ Ἰταλία_ς διέβησαν ἐς Σικελία_νthe Sicels crossed over out of Italy into SicilyT. 6.2; with a personal object: ἦλθεν ἐκ τῆς Ἀσία_ς ἐς ἀνθρώπους ἀπόρους he came from Asia to (a land of) poor men T. 1.9, ἐσπέμπει γράμματα ἐς (v. l. πρὸς) βασιλέα_ he dispatches a letter to (the palace of) the king 1. 137 (of sending, etc., to individuals ὡς or πρός is used); against: ““ἐστράτευσαν ἐς τὴν Ἀττικήνthey invaded AtticaT. 3.1, πόλεμος τοῖς Κορινθίοις ἐς τοὺς Ἀθηναίους war between the Corinthians and the Athenians 1. 55; with verbs of rest, 1659 b. The idea of motion holds where Eng. uses in or at: ““τελευτᾶν εἴς τιto end inT. 2.51. Extension: ““Πελοποννησίους διαβαλεῖν ἐς τοὺς Ἕλληναςto raise a prejudice against the Peloponnesians among the GreeksT. 3.109; in the presence of (coram): ἐς τὸ κοινὸν λέγειν to speak before the assembly 4. 58.

b. Temporal: of the goal: up to, until: ““ἐς ἐμέup to my timeHdt. 1.52, ἐς τέλος finally 3. 40; at (by) such a time (of a fixed or expected time): προεῖπε εἰς τρίτην ἡμέρα_ν παρεῖναι commanded them to be present on the third day X. C. 3.1.42, ἥκετε εἰς τρια_κοστὴν ἡμέρα_ν come on the thirtieth day 5. 3. 6. Limit of time attained: ““εἰς τοιοῦτον καιρὸν ἀφι_γμένοιarriving at such a timeL. 16.5. Extension (over future time): ““εἰς τὸν λοιπὸν χρόνονin all future timeL. 16.2.

c. Measure and Limit with numerals: εἰς χι_λίους to the number of (up to) a thousand X. A. 1.8.5, εἰς δύο two abreast 2. 4. 26, ““ἐς δραχμήνto the amount of a drachmaT. 8.29.

d. Other relations: Goal, Purpose, Intention: ““ σὴ πατρὶς εἰς σὲ ἀποβλέπειyour country looks for help to youX. H. 6.1.8, ““χρῆσθαι εἰς τὰ_ς σφενδόνα_ςto use for the slingsX. A. 3.4.17, ““παιδεύειν εἰς ἀρετήνto train with a view to virtueP. G. 519e. Relation to: ““καλὸν εἰς στρατιά_νexcellent for the armyX. C. 3.3.6, often in Thuc. ( = πρός with accus.). Manner: ““εἰς καιρόνin seasonX. C. 3.1.8, εἰς δύναμιν to the extent of one's powers 4. 5. 52.

2. εἰς in Composition

Into, in, to (εἰσβαίνειν enter, εἰσπρά_ττειν get in, exact a debt).


1687. ἐν in (poetic ἐνί, εἰν, εἰνί), Lat. in with the abl., en-; opposed to εἰς into, ἐξ out of. On ἐν with the genitive by ellipsis, see 1302.

1. ἐν with the Dative (Locative) only

a. Local: in, at, near, by, on, among: ““ἐν Σπάρτῃin SpartaT. 1.128, ““ ἐν Κορίνθῳ μάχηthe battle at CorinthX. Ages. 7.5, ““πόλις οἰκουμένη ἐν τῷ Εὐξείνῳ πόντῳa city built on the EuxineX. A. 4.8.22, ἐν τῇ κλί_νῃ ἑστηκώς standing upon the bed L. 1.24 (ἐν of superposition is rare), ““νόμοι ἐν πᾶσιν εὐδόκιμοι τοῖς Ἕλλησινlaws famous among all the GreeksP. L. 631b, ἐν ὑ_μῖν ἐδημηγόρησεν he made an harangue before (coram) you D. 8.74. With verbs of motion, see 1659 a. Of circumstance, occupation, as ““οἱ ἐν τοῖς πρά_γμασινthe men at the head of affairsD. 9.56 (so ἐν εἰρήνῃ, ἔργῳ, ὠφελείᾳ, φιλοσοφίᾳ, φόβῳ εἶναι; ἐν αἰτίᾳ ἔχειν to blame, ἐν ὀργῇ ἔχειν to be angry with); in the power of: ἐν τῷ θεῷ τὸ τέλος ἦν, οὐκ ἐμοί the issue rested with God, not with me D. 18.193, ““ἐν ἑαυτῷ ἐγένετοhe came to himselfX. A. 1.5.17.

b. Temporal: in, within, during (cp. 1542): ““ἐν πέντε ἔτεσινin five yearsL. 19.29, ““ἐν σπονδαῖςduring a truceT. 1.55, ἐν while.

c. Instrument, Means, Cause, Manner (originally local): ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ἴδωμαι see with the eyes A 587, ἐν ἑνὶ κινδυ_νεύεσθαι to be endangered by (i.e. to depend on) a single person T. 2.35, ““ἐν τούτοις λυ_πούμενοι χαίροντεςeither grieving or rejoicing at thisP. R. 603c, ἐν τούτῳ δηλῶσαι to make clear by this 392 e, ““ἐν τῷ φανερῷopenlyX. A. 1.3.21. Conformity: ““ἐν τοῖς ὁμοίοις νόμοις ποιήσαντες τὰ_ς κρίσειςdeciding according to equal lawsT. 1.77, ““ἐν ἐμοίin my opinionE. Hipp. 1320.

N.—In many dialects, e.g. those north of the Corinthian Gulf (rarely in Pindar), ἐν retains its original meaning of in (with dat.) and into (with accus.). The latter use appears in ἐνδέξια towards the right.

2. ἐν in Composition

In, at, on, among (ἐμπί_πτειν fall in or on, ἐντυγχάνειν fall in with, ἐγγελᾶν laugh at, ἐνάπτειν bind on).

ἐξ, ἐκ

1688. ἐξ, ἐκ out, out of, from, from within, opposed to ἐν, εἰς; cp. Lat. ex, e. As contrasted with ἀπό away from, ἐξ denotes from within.

1. ἐξ, ἐκ with the (Ablatival) Genitive only

In Arcadian and Cyprian ἐς ( = ἐξ) takes the dative.

a. Local: ““ἐκ Φοινί_κης ἐλαύνωνmarching out of PhoeniciaX. A. 1.7.12; of transition: ἐκ πλείονος ἔφευγον they fled when at (from) a greater distance 1. 10. 11. On ἐξ in the constructio praegnans, see 1660 a.

b. Temporal: ““ἐκ τοῦ ἀ_ρίστουafter breakfastX. A. 4.6.21, ἐκ παίδων from boyhood 4. 6. 14.

c. Other relations: immediate succession or transition: ““ἄλλην ἐξ ἄλλης πόλεως ἀμειβόμενοςexchanging one city for anotherP. A. 37d, ἐκ πολέμου ποιούμενος εἰρήνην making peace after (a state of) war D. 19.133, ἐκ πτωχῶν πλούσιοι γίγνονται from beggars they become rich 8. 66. Origin: immediate origin (whereas ἀπό is used of remote origin, 1684. 1. c): ““ἀγαθοὶ καὶ ἐξ ἀγαθῶνnoble and of noble breedP. Phae. 246a. Agent, regarded as the source: with pass. and intr. verbs instead of ὑπδ (chiefly poetic and in Hdt.): πόλεις ἐκ βασιλέως δεδομέναι cities a gift (having been given) of (by) the king X. A. 1.1.6, ““ὡμολογεῖτο ἐκ πάντωνit was agreed by allT. 2.49; but ἐκ is often used with a different force, as ἐκ τῶν τυχόντων ἀνθρώπων συνοικισθῆναι to have been settled by the vulgar (as constituent parts of a whole) Lyc. 62. Consequence: ““ἐξ αὐτοῦ τοῦ ἔργουin consequence of the fact itselfT. 1.75. Cause or ground of judgment (where the dat, is more usual with inanimate objects): ““ἐξ οὗ διέβαλλεν αὐτόνfor which reason he accused himX. A. 6.6.11. Material: ““τὸ ἄγκιστρον ἐξ ἀδάμαντοςthe hook of adamantP. R. 616c. Instrument and means: ““ἐκ τῶν πόνων τὰ_ς ἀρετὰ_ς κτᾶσθαιto acquire by labour the fruits of virtueT. 1.123. Conformity: ““ἐκ τῶν νόμωνin accordance with the lawsD. 24.28. Manner (rare): ““ἐκ τοῦ ἴσουon equal termsT. 2.3. Partitive (cp. 1317 a): ““ἐκ τῶν δυναμένων εἰσίthey belong to the class that has powerP. G. 525e.

2. ἐξ, ἐκ in Composition

Out, from, off, away (cp. ἐξελαύνειν drive out and away); often with an implication of fulfilment, completion, thoroughness, resolution (ἐκπέρθειν sack utterly, ἐκδιδάσκειν teach thoroughly). Cp. 1648.


1689. ἐπί (cp. Lat. ob) upon, on, on the surface of; opposed to ὑπό under, and to ὑπέρ when ὑπέρ means above the surface of.

1. ἐπί with the Genitive

a. Local: upon: ““οὔτ᾽ ἐπὶ γῆς οὔθ᾽ ὑπὸ γῆςneither upon the earth nor under the earthP. Menex. 246d, ““ἐπὶ θρόνου ἐκαθέζετοhe seated himself on a throneX. C. 6.1.6; of the vehicle (lit. or figur.) upon which: ἐπὶ τῶν ἵππων ὀχεῖσθαι to ride on horseback 4. 5. 58 (never ἐπί with dat.), ““ἐπὶ τῆς ἐμῆς νεώςon my shipL. 21.6; in the direction of: ““ἐπὶ Σάρδεων ἔφευγεhe fled toward SardisX. C. 7.2.1; in the presence of (cp. παρά with dat.): ἐπὶ μαρτύρων before witnesses Ant. 2. γ. 8. ἐπί is rarely used of mere proximity in poetry or standard prose.

N.—In expressions of simple superposition ἐπί with the gen. denotes familiar relations and natural position; whereas ἐπί with the dat. gives clear and emphatic outlines to statements of the definite place of an object or action, is used in detailed pictures, and marks the object in the dative as distinct from the subject of the verbal action. ἐπί with the gen. is colourless and phraseological, and often makes, with the verb or the subject, a compound picture. Even in contrasting two objects ἐπί with gen. is used since no special point is made of position. With (unemphatic) pronouns of reference (αὐτοῦ) ἐπί with gen. is much more frequent than ἐπί with dat. The distinction between the two cases is often the result of feeling; and certain phrases become stereotyped, now with the gen., now with the dat.

b. Temporal, usually with personal gen.: in the time of: ““ἐπὶ τῶν προγόνωνin the time of our ancestorsAes. 3.178, ““ἐπ᾽ ἐμοῦin my timeT. 7.86, ““ἐπὶ τοῦ Δεκελεικου᾽ πολέμουin the Decelean warD. 22.15.

c. Other relations: ““μενεῖν ἐπὶ τῆς ἀνοία_ς τῆς αὐτῆςto persist in the same follyD. 8.14, ““ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων ὁρᾶτε, ταῦτ᾽ ἐφ᾽ ὑ_μῶν αὐτῶν ἀγνοεῖτεwhat you see in the case of others, that you ignore in your own caseI. 8.114, ““ἐφ᾽ ἑαυτῶν ἐχώρουνthey proceeded by themselvesX. A. 2.4.10, ἐπὶ τεττάρων four deep 1. 2. 15, ““οἱ ἐπὶ τῶν πρα_γμάτωνthe men in powerD. 18.247.

2. ἐπί with the Dative

a. Local: on, by: ““οἰκοῦσιν ἐπὶ τῷ ἰσθμῷthey dwell on the isthmusT. 1.56, τὸ ἐπὶ θαλάσσῃ τεῖχος the wall by the sea 7. 4. The dat. with ἐπί denotes proxim ity much more frequently than the gen. with ἐπί; but denotes superposition less often than the gen. with ἐπί.

b. Temporal (rare in prose): ““ἦν ἥλιος ἐπὶ δυσμαῖςthe sun was near settingX. A. 7.3.34.

c. Other relations: Succession, Addition: ““τὸ ἐπὶ τούτῳ γ᾽ ἀπόκρι_ναιanswer the next questionP. A. 27b, ““ἀνέστη ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷhe rose up after himX. C. 2.3.7, ““ἐπὶ τῷ σί_τῳ ὄψονrelish with breadX. M. 3.14.2. Supervision: ““ἄρχων ἐπὶ τούτοις ἦνthere was a commander over themX. C. 5.3.56. Dependence: ““καθ᾽ ὅσον ἐστὶν ἐπ᾽ ἐμοίas far as is in my powerI. 6.8. Condition: ““ἐφ᾽ οἷς τὴν εἰρήνην ἐποιησάμεθαon what terms we made the peaceD. 8.5. Reason, motive, end, as with verbs of emotion (instead of the simple dative, 1517): πάντα ταῦτα θαυμάζω ἐπὶ τῷ κάλλει I am astonished at all these trees because of their beauty X. O. 4.21, οὐκ ἐπὶ τέχνῃ ἔμαθες ἀλλ᾽ ἐπὶ παιδείᾳ you learned this not to make it a profession but to gain general culture P. Pr. 312b. Hostility (less common in prose than in poetry; usually with accus.): ““ ἐπὶ τῷ Μήδῳ ξυμμαχία_the alliance against the MedesT. 3.63. Price: ἐπὶ πόσῳ; for how much? P. A. 41a.

3. ἐπί with the Accusative

a. Local: of the goal: ““ἐξελαύνει ἐπὶ τὸν ποταμόνhe marches to the riverX. A. 1.4.11, ἀφί_κοντο ἐπὶ τὸν ποταμόν they arrived at the river 4. 7. 18 (rarely the gen. with verbs of arrival), ““ἀνέβαινεν ἐπὶ τὸν ἵππονhe mounted his horseX. C. 7.1.1. Extension: ““ἐπὶ πᾶσαν Ἀσία_ν ἐλλόγιμοιfamous over all AsiaP. Criti. 112e.

b. Temporal: extension: ““ἐπὶ πολλὰ_ς ἡμέρα_ςfor many daysD. 21.41.

c. Quantity, measure: ἐπὶ μι_κρόν a little, ἐπὶ πλέον still more, ἐπὶ πᾶν in general, πλάτος ἔχων πλεῖον ἐπὶ δύο στάδια wider than (up to) two stades X. C. 7.5.8.

d. Other relations: Purpose, object in view: ““πέμπειν ἐπὶ κατασκοπήνto send for the purpose of reconnoiteringX. C. 6.2.9, ““ἀπέστειλαν ἐπὶ χρήματαthey sent for moneyT. 6.74. Hostility: ἔπλεον ἐπὶ τοὺς Ἀθηναίους they sailed against the Athenians 2. 90. Reference: τὸ ἐπ᾽ ἐμέ (with or without εἶναι) as far as I am concerned (more commonly ἐπ᾽ ἐμοί); τό γε ἐπ᾽ ἐκεῖνον εἶναι L. 13.58.

N.—To express purpose ἐπί with accus. is generally used when the purpose involves actual or implied motion to an object; ἐπί with dat. is used when the purpose may be attained by mental activity.

4. ἐπί in Composition

Upon (ἐπιγράφειν write upon), over (ἐπιπλεῖν sail over), at, of cause (ἐπιχαίρειν rejoice over or at), to, toward (ἐπιβοηθεῖν send assistance to), in addition (ἐπιδιδόναι give in addition), against (ἐπιβουλεύειν plot against), after (ἐπιγίγνεσθαι be born after, ἐπισκευάζειν repair); causative (ἐπαληθεύειν verify); intensity (ἐπικρύπτειν hide; ἐπιβουλεύεσθαι further deliberate = reflect); reciprocity (ἐπιμείγνυσθαι ἀλλήλοις exchange friendly dealings).


1690. κατά down (cp. κάτω), opposed to ἀνά. With the genitive (the genitive proper (of the goal) and the ablatival genitive) and the accusative. With the genitive, the motion is perpendicular; with the accusative, horizontal.

1. κατά with the Genitive

a. Local: down from, down toward, under: ““ἁλάμενοι κατὰ τῆς πέτρα_ςhaving leapt down from the rockX. A. 4.2.17, κατ᾽ ἄκρα_ς utterly, completely (down from the summit) P. L. 909b, ““ψυ_χὴ κατὰ χθονὸς ᾤχετοhis soul went down under the earthΨ 100, μύρον κατὰ τῆς κεφαλῆς καταχέαντες having poured myrrh (down) over their heads P. R. 398a; rarely of rest: ““ κατὰ γῆςthe man under the earthX. C. 4.6.5.

b. Temporal (very rare): κατὰ παντὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος for all eternity Lyc. 7.

c. Other relations: against, as ““κατ᾽ ἐμαυτοῦ ἐρεῖνto speak against myselfP. A. 37b; rarely in a favourable or neutral sense, as ““οἱ κατὰ Δημοσθένους ἔπαινοιthe eulogies on DemosthenesAes. 3.50, ““κατὰ πάντων λέγεινto speak with regard to allX. C. 1.2.16; by (with verbs of swearing), as ὀμνύντων τὸν ὅρκον κατὰ ἱερῶν τελείων let them swear the oath by (lit. down over) fullgrown victims T. 5.47.

2. κατά with the Accusative

a. Local: ““ἔπλεον κατὰ ποταμόνthey sailed down-streamHdt. 4.44, ““κατὰ τὰ_ς εἰσόδους ἐφεπόμενοιfollowing to the entrancesX. C. 3.3.64. Extension: καθ᾽ ὅλην τὴν πόλιν throughout the entire city Lyc. 40, ““κατὰ γῆνby landL. 2.32, ““διώκοντες τοὺς καθ᾽ αὑτούςpursuing those stationed opposite themselvesX. A. 1.10.4.

b. Temporal (post-Homeric): ““κατὰ πλοῦνduring the voyageT. 3.32, κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνον τὸν χρόνον at that time 1. 139, ““οἱ καθ᾽ ἑαυτόνhis contemporariesD. 20.73.

c. Other relations: Purpose: ““κατὰ θέα_ν ἧκενcame for the purpose of seeingT. 6.31. Conformity: ““κατὰ τούτους ῥήτωρan orator after their styleP. A. 17b, ““κατὰ τοὺς νόμουςaccording to the lawsD. 8.2. Ground on which an act is based: ““κατὰ φιλία_νowing to friendshipT. 1.60. Comparisons: μείζω κατὰ δάκρυα πεπονθότες having endured sufferings too great for (than according to) tears 7. 75 (cp. maior quam pro). Manner: ““καθ᾽ ἡσυχία_νquietlyT. 6.64. Distribution: ““κατ᾽ ἔθνηnation by nationT. 1.122, ““δέκα δραχμαὶ κατ᾽ ἄνδραten drachmae the manAes. 3.187, ““κατὰ σφᾶς αὐτούςper seT. 1.79. Approximate numbers: ““κατὰ πεντήκονταabout fiftyHdt. 6.79.

3. κατά in Composition

Down from above (καταπί_πτειν fall down), back (καταλείπειν leave behind), against, adversely (καταγιγνώσκειν condemn, decide against, καταφρονεῖν despise), completely (καταπετροῦν stone to death, κατεσθίειν eat up), often with an intensive force that cannot be translated. An intransitive verb when compounded with κατά may become transitive (1559).


1691. μετά: original meaning amid, among (cp. Germ. mit, Eng. mid in midwife). Hence properly only with plurals or collectives (so in Hom. with gen. and dat.). μετά denotes participation, community of action. πεδά (Lesb. and other dialects) agrees in meaning with μετά, but is of different origin.

1. μετά with the Genitive

Usually of persons and abstract nouns.

Local: among, together with, as ““καθήμενος μετὰ τῶν ἄλλωνsitting among the restP. R. 359e, ““θῦσαι μετ᾽ ἐκείνωνto sacrifice in company with themX. C. 8.3.1; on the side of, as ““οἱ μετὰ Κύ_ρου βάρβαροιthe barbarians in the army of CyrusX. A. 1.7.10, ““μετὰ τῶν ἠδικημένων πολεμεῖνto wage war on the side of the wrongedD. 9.24, ““οὐ μετὰ τοῦ πλήθουςwithout the consent of the peopleT. 3.66; besides: ““γενόμενος μετὰ τοῦ ξυνετοῦ καὶ δυνατόςshowing himself powerful as well as sagaciousT. 2.15. Accompanying circumstances (concurrent act or state): μετὰκινδύ_νων κτησάμενοι (τὴν τάξιν) having acquired their position amid dangers D. 3.36, ““λύ_πη μετὰ φόβουgrief and terrorT. 7.75. Joint efficient cause: μετὰ πόνων ἐλευθέρα_ν ἐποίησαν τὴν Ἑλλάδα by (amid) struggles they freed Greece L. 2.55. Conformity: μετὰ τῶν νόμων in accordance with the laws 3. 82.

2. μετά with the Dative (Locative

Chiefly Epic (usually with the plural or with the collective singular of persons or things personified, or of the parts of living objects): ““μετὰ μνηστῆρσιν ἔειπενhe spake amid the suitorsρ 467, ““μετὰ φρεσίin their heartsΔ 245.

3. μετά with the Accusative

Local: into the midst of: νεκροὺς ἔρυσαν μετὰ λα_ὸν Ἀχαιῶν they dragged the dead into the midst of the host of the Achaeans E 573; with an idea of purpose: ἰέναι μετὰ Νέστορα to go after (in quest of) Nestor K 73. Extension over the midst of: μετὰ πληθύ_ν throughout the multitude B 143. Phrase: ““μετὰ χεῖρας ἔχεινto have in handT. 1.138.

N.—From the use in ““μετ᾽ ἴχνια βαῖνε θεοῖοhe went after the steps of the goddessγ 30 is derived the prose use: after (of time or rank), as ““μετὰ τὰ Τρωϊκάafter the Trojan warT. 2.68, μετὰ θεοὺς ψυ_χὴ θειότατον after the gods the soul is most divine P. L. 726. The range of μετά with acc. in Attic prose is not wide.

4. μετά in Composition

Among (μεταδιδόναι give a share), after, in quest of (μεταπέμπεσθαι send for). When one thing is among other things, it may be said to come after another, to succeed or alternate with it; hence of succession (μεθημερινός diurnus; cp. μεθ᾽ ἡμέρα_ν after daybreak), alteration or change (μεταγράφειν rewrite, μεταμέλειν repent i.e. care for something else).

When contrasted with σύν, μετά often denotes participation: μέτοχος the partner, συνών the companion. σύν often denotes something added. But μετά is usually the prose preposition for σύν, though it does not mean inclusive of.


1692. παρά (Hom. παραί, Lat. por- in porrigere) alongside, by, near. Except with the accusative παρά is commonly used of persons and personified things.

1. παρά with the (Ablatival) Genitive

Usually coming or proceeding from a person, in Hom. also of things; cp. de chez.

a. Local: ““οἱ αὐτομολοῦντες παρὰ βασιλέωςthe deserters from the kingX. A. 2.1.6. In poetry, where we might expect the dat. (1659 a): ἔγρετο παρ᾽ Ἥρης lit. he awoke from the side of Hera O 5. In standard Attic prose παρά with the gen. of a thing is excessively rare. When so used, the thing is personified, or the thing implies a person (as πόλις, ἀρχή, θέα_τρον).

b. Author, Source (cp. 1410): with verbs of receiving, taking, asking, learning, sending, etc.: ““παρὰ Μήδων τὴν ἀρχὴν ἐλάμβανον Πέρσαιthe Persians wrested the empire from the MedesX. A. 3.4.8, ““παρὰ σοῦ ἐμάθομενwe learned from youX. C. 2.2.6; ““ παρὰ τῶν θεῶν εὔνοιαthe good-will on the part of the godsD. 2.1 (less commonly ἀπό); with passives and intransitives (instead of ὑπό with the gen. of the agent): ““τὰ παρὰ τῆς τύχης δωρηθένταthe gifts of FortuneI. 4.26, τοῦτο παρὰ πάντων ὁμολογεῖται this is acknowledged on all sides (on the part of all) L. 30.12.

2. παρά with the Dative

Almost always of persons in standard Attic prose; cp. chez.

a. Local: ““οὐ παρὰ μητρὶ σι_τοῦνται οι᾽ παῖδες, ἀλλὰ παρὰ τῷ διδασκάλῳthe boys do not eat with their mothers, but with their teachersX. C. 1.2.8, παρ᾽ ἐμοί σκηνοῦν to mess with me (as chez moi) 6. 1. 49; of things: ““τὰ παρὰ θαλάττη χωρίαthe places along the seaX. A. 7.2.25.

b. Other relations: Possessor: ““τὸ μὲν χρυ_σίον παρὰ τούτῳ, οἱ δὲ κίνδυ_νοι παρ᾽ ὑ_μῖνthis man has the gold, you the dangersAes. 3.240; of the superior in command: ““οἱ παρὰ βασιλεῖ ὄντεςthose under the kingX. A. 1.5.16; of the person judging: ““ἀναίτιος παρὰ τοῖς στρατιώταιςblameless in the opinion of the troopsX. C. 1.6.10, ὁμολογεῖται παρὰ τῷ δήμῳ it is agreed in the opinion of the people Lyc. 54 (here παρά denotes the sphere of judgment); with the gen. after a passive (1692. 1. b) it denotes the source.

3. παρά with the Accusative

a. Local: of motion to, in prose only of persons: ““ἧκε παρ᾽ ἐμέcome to meX. C. 4.5.25; motion along, by, past (a place): ““παρὰ γῆν πλεῖνsail along shoreT. 6.13; of parallel extent (along, alongside, beside) with verbs of motion and of rest (often the dat.), and often when no verb is used: ““ἥνπερ ἔλαβον ναῦν, ἀνέθεσαν παρὰ τὸ τροπαῖονthe ship they captured they set up alongside of the trophyT. 2.92, ““εἶπεν αὐτῷ μένειν παρ᾽ ἑαυτόνhe told him to remain close by himX. C. 1.4.18, ““τὸ πεδίον τὸ παρὰ τὸν ποταμόνthe plain extending along the riverX. A. 4.3.1, ἦν παρὰ τὴν ὁδὸν κρήνη there was a spring by the road 1. 2. 13. Contrary to: παρὰ τοὺς νόμους κατ᾽ αὐτούς contrary to (i.e. going past) the laws or in accordance with them D. 23.20; in addition to (along beside): ““ἔχω παρὰ ταῦτα ἄλλο τι λέγεινbesides this I have to say something elseP. Ph. 107a. Phrase: παρ᾽ ὀλίγον ἐποιοῦντο Κλέανδρον they treated Cleander as of no account (cp. ‘next to nothing’) X. A. 6.6.11.

b. Temporal: (duration) ““παρὰ πάντα τὸν χρόνονthroughout the whole timeD. 5.2, (momentary) ““παρὰ τὰ δεινάin the hour of dangerAes. 3.170, παρ᾽ αὐτὰ τἀ_δικήματα at the time of (i.e. immediately after) the offences themselves D. 18.13.

c. Other relations: Cause = διά: ““παρὰ τὴν ἡμετέρα_ν ἀμέλειανin consequence of our negligenceD. 4.11, εἰ παρὰ τὸ προαισθέσθαι κεκώλυ_ται if it was prevented by being perceived in advance 19. 42. Dependence: παρὰ τοῦτο γέγονε τὰ ““τῶν Ἑλλήνωνthe fortunes of the Greeks depend on thisD. 18.232. Measure: παρὰ μι_κρὸν ἤλθομεν ἐξανδραποδισθῆναι we had a narrow escape (came by a little) from being enslaved I. 7.6, ““παρὰ πολύby farT. 2.8. Comparison: ““ἐξέτασον παρ᾽ ἄλληλαcontrast with each otherD. 18.265, χειμὼν μείζων παρὰ τὴν καθεστηκυῖαν ὥρα_ν stormy weather more severe than was to be expected at the season then present T. 4.6.

4. παρά in Composition

Alongside, by, beside (παριέναι go alongside), beyond, past (παρελαύνειν drive past), over (παρορᾶν overlook), aside, amiss (παρακούειν misunderstand).


1693. περί around (on all sides), about; cp. πέριξ round about. Lat. per in permagnus. περί is wider than ἀμφί: cp. X. Vect. 1.7 οὐ πεοίρρυτος οὖσα ὥσπερ νῆσος . . . ἀμφιθάλαττος γάρ ἐστι it (Attica) is not, like an island, surrounded by the sea . . . for it has the sea on two sides. On περί post-positive, see 1665.

1. περί with the Genitive

a. Local (poetic): περὶ τρόπιος βεβαώς riding on (astride) the keel ε 130.

b. Other relations: about, concerning (Lat. de), the subject about which an act or thought centres: ““περὶ πατρίδος μαχούμενοιfighting for their countryT. 6.69 (cp. ὑπέρ), ““δείσα_ς περὶ τοῦ υἱοῦfearing for his sonX. C. 1.4.22, ““λέγειν περὶ τῆς εἰρήνηςto speak about peaceT. 5.55; τὰ περί τινος instead of τὰ περί τινα is used in the neighbourhood of a verb of saying or thinking (which takes περί with gen.): ““τὰ περὶ τῆς ἀρετῆςthe relations of virtueP. Pr. 360e. Superiority (cp. 1402): ““περίεσσι γυναικῶν εἶδοςthou dost surpass women in beautyς 248, περὶ παντὸς ποιούμενοι regarding as (more than everything) all-important T. 2.11 (cp. 1373).

2. περί with the Dative

a. Local: about: of arms, dress, etc., in prose: ““στρεπτοὶ περὶ τοῖς τραχήλοιςcollars about their necksX. A. 1.5.8, περὶ τοῖς σώμασιν ἔχουσιν the clothes about their persons I. ep. 9. 10 (only case in the orators), περὶ δουρί A 303.

b. Other relations (usually poetic): External cause: ““δείσαντες περὶ ταῖς ναυσίνafraid for their shipsT. 7.53 (with verbs of fearing, περί with the gen. is fear of or fear for). Inner impulse: ““περὶ τάρβειfrom fearA. Pers. 694.

3. περί with the Accusative

a. Local: of position: ““ἀπέστειλαν ναῦς περὶ Πελοπόννησονthey despatched ships round about PeloponneseT. 2.23, ᾤκουν περὶ πᾶσαν τὴν Σικελία_ν they settled all round Sicily 6. 2; of persons: ““οἱ περὶ Ἡρἁ_κλειτονthe followers of HeraclitusP. Crat. 440c.

b. Indefinite statement of time and number: ““περὶ ὄρθρονabout dawnT. 6.101, περὶ ἑβδομήκοντα about seventy 1. 54.

c. Other relations: Occupation: ““οἱ περὶ τὴν μουσικὴν ὄντεςthose who are engaged in liberal pursuitsI. 9.4; connected with, of general relation (with reference to): ““οἱ νόμοι οἱ περὶ τοὺς γάμουςthe laws about marriageP. Cr. 50d, ““περὶ θεοὺς ἀσεβέστατοιmost impious in regard to the godsX. H. 2.3.53, ““τὰ περὶ τὰ_ς ναῦςnaval affairsT. 1.13. Verbs of action (except verbs of striving) prefer περί with accus., verbs of perception, emotion, knowing, prefer περί with gen. But the cases often shift.

4. περί in Composition

Around, about (περιέχειν surround), beyond, over (περιεῖναι excel; and περιορᾶ<*> look beyond, overlook, suffer), (remaining) over (περιγίγνεσθαι remain over, result, and excel), exceedingly (περιχαρής very glad).


1694. πρό (Lat. pro, for) before. Cp. ἀντί, which is narrower in meaning.

1. πρό with the Genitive only

a. Local: ““πρὸ τῶν ἁμαξῶνin front of the wagonsX. C. 6.2.36.

b. Temporal: ““πρὸ τῆς μάχηςbefore the battleX. A. 1.7.13.

c. Other relations: Defence or care (cp. ὑπέρ): διακινδυ_νευειν πρὸ βασιλέως to incur danger in defence of (prop. in front of) the king X. C. 8.8.4. Preference (cp. ἀντί): οἱ ἐπαινοῦντες πρὸ δικαιοσύνης ἀδικία_ν th<*>se who laud injustice in preference to justice P. R. 361e, πρὸ πολλοῦ ποιεῖσθαι to esteem highly (in preference to much) I. 5.138, φωνεῖν πρὸ τῶνδε to speak for them (as their spokesman) S. O. T. 10 (ἀντὶ τῶνδε = as their deputy, ὑπὲρ τῶνδε as their champion).

2. πρό in Composition

Before, forward, forth (προβάλλειν put forward), for, in behalf of, in defence of, in public (προαγορεύειν give public notice), beforehand (πρόδηλος manifest beforehand), in preference (προαιρεῖσθαι choose in preference).


1695. πρός (Hom. also προτί), at, by (fronting). Of like meaning, but of different origin, is Hom. ποτί.

1. πρός with the Genitive

a. Local (not common in prose): ““τὸ πρὸς ἑσπέρα_ς τεῖχοςthe wall facing the westX. H. 4.4.18, ““τὰ ὑποζύγια ἔχοντες πρὸς τοῦ ποταμοῦhaving the pack-animals on the side toward the riverX. A. 2.2.4.

b. Other relations: Descent: ““πρὸς πατρόςon the father's sideAes. 3.169. Characteristic: ““οὐ γὰρ ἦν πρὸς τοῦ Κύ_ρου τρόπουfor it was not the way of CyrusX. A. 1.2.11. Point of view of a person: πρὸς ἀνθρώπων αἰσχρός base in the eyes of men 2. 5. 20. Agent as the source, with passive verbs (instead of ὑπό): ὁμολογεῖται πρὸς πάντων it is agreed by all 1. 9. 20; to the advantage of; ““σπονδὰ_ς ποιησάμενος πρὸς Θηβαίων μᾶλλον πρὸς ἑαυτ ῶνmaking a truce more to the advantage of the Thebans than of his own partyX. H. 7.1.17; in oaths and entreaties: ““πρὸς θεῶνby the godsX. H. 2.4.21.

2. πρός with the Dative

In a local sense, denoting proximity (generally, in prose, of towns or buildings, not of persons): ““πρὸς τῇ πόλει τὴν μάχην ποιεῖσθαιto fight near the cityT. 6.49; sometimes like ἐν, as ““πρὸς ἱεροῖς τοῖς κοινοῖς ἀνατεθῆναιto be dedicated in the common shrinesT. 3.57. Occupation: ““ἦν ὅλος πρὸς τῷ λήμματιhe was wholly intent upon his gainD. 19.127. In addition to: ““πρὸς αὐτοῖςbesides theseT. 7.57. In the presence of: ““πρὸς τῷ διαιτητῆ λέγεινto speak before the arbitratorD. 39.22.

3. πρός with the Accusative

a. Local (direction toward or to, strictly fronting, facing): ““ὑ_μᾶς ἄξομεν πρὸς αὐτούςwe will lead you to themX. A. 7.6.6, πρὸς νότον (toward the) south T. 3.6, ““ἰέναι πρὸς τοὺς πολεμίουςto go against the enemyX. A. 2.6.10.

b. Temporal (rare): ““πρὸς ἡμέρα_νtoward daybreakX. H. 2.4.6.

c. Other relations: friendly or hostile relation: ““πρὸς ἐμὲ λέγετεspeak to meX. C. 6.4.19, ““φιλία_ πρὸς ὑ_μᾶςfriendship with youI. 5.32, ““ἔχθρα_ πρὸς τοὺς Ἀργείουςenmity to the ArgivesT. 2.68, but πρὸς ἡμᾶς ἔχθρα_ our enmity 6. 80, ἀπέχθεια πρὸς τοὺς Θηβαίους our enmity to the Thebans and the enmity of the Thebans to us D. 18.36. With words of hating, accusing, and their opposites, πρός is used either of the subject or of the object or of both parties involved. With words denoting warfare πρός indicates a double relation, and the context must determine which party is the aggressor or assailant: ““ναυμαχία_ Κορινθίων πρὸς Κερκυ_ραίουςa sea-fight between the Corinthians and the CorcyreansT. 1.13 (here καί often suffices, as Λακεδαιμονίων καὶ Ἠλείων πόλεμος X. H. 3.2.31). Relation in general: ““οὐδὲν αὐτῷ πρὸς τὴν πόλιν ἐστίνhe has nothing to do with the cityD. 21.44, πρὸς τοὺς θεοὺς εὐσεβῶς ἔχειν to be pious toward the gods Lyc. 15. Purpose: πρὸς τί; to what end? X. C. 6.3.20, ““πρὸς χάριν λέγεινto speak in order to court favourD. 4.51; with a view to (often nearly = διά): ““πρὸς ταῦτα βουλεύεσθε εὖwherefore be well advisedT. 4.87, πρὸς τὰ παρόντα in consequence of the present circumstances 6. 41. Conformity: ““πρὸς τὴν ἀξία_νaccording to meritX. C. 8.4.29. Standard of judgment: ““οὐδὲ πρὸς ἀργύριον τὴν εὐδαιμονία_ν ἔκρι_νονnor did they estimate happiness by the money-standardI. 4.76, χώρα_ ὡς πρὸς τὸ πλῆθος τῶν πολι_τῶν ἐλαχίστη a territory very small in proportion to the number of its citizens 4. 107; and hence of comparison: ““οί φαυλότεροι τῶν ἀνθρώπων πρὸς τοὺς ξυνετωτέρους . . . ἄμεινον οἰκοῦσι τὰ_ς πόλειςthe simpler class of men, in comparison with the more astute, manage their public affairs betterT. 3.37. Exchange: ““ἡδονὰ_ς πρὸς ἡδονὰ_ς καταλλάττεσθαιto exchange pleasures for pleasuresP. Ph. 69a.

4. πρός in Composition

To, toward (προσελαύνειν drive to, προστρέπειν turn toward), in addition (προσλαμβάνειν take in addition), against (προσκρούειν strike against, be angry with). Often in the general sense of additionally, qualifying the whole sentence rather than the verb.


1696. σύν (Older Attic ξύν; cp. Ion. ξυ_νός from κονιος κοινός, Lat. cum) with.

1. σύν with the Instrumental Dative only.

a. In standard (i.e. not Xenophontic) prose σύν has been almost driven out of use by μετά. It is used (1) in old formulas, as σὺν (τοῖς) θεοῖς with the help of the gods, σὺν (τοῖς) ὅπλοις in arms, etc. (of things attached to a person), σὺν νῷ intelligently; (2) of sum totals (along with, including), as ““σὺν τοῖς ἔργοις πλέον δέκα τάλαντα ἔχειhe has more than ten talents interest includedD. 28.13.

b. σύν is usually poetic (rare in comedy) and Xenophontic; it is often used in the formulas of a (1) and of persons and things personified. Its older and poetic meaning is along with (of something secondary or added to the action) and with the help of. So in Xen.: together with, along with: ““σὺν τῆ γυναικὶ δειπνεῖνto sup with your wifeX. C. 6.1.49; to reinforce the simple dative: ἀκολουθεῖν σύν τινι, πορεύεσθαι σύν τινι (1524); with the collateral notion of help: with the aid of, as ““σὺν ἐκείνῳ μάχεσθαιto fight with his helpX. C. 5.3.5.

c. Means and Instrument (regarded as accompaniments of an action: the comitative instrumental): κτῆσις αὐτῶν ἔστιν οὐδαμῶς σὺν τῇ βίᾳ, ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον σὺν τῇ εὐεργεσίᾳ they (friends) are acquired, not by forcible means, but by kindness X. C. 8.7.13.

d. Manner: ““σὺν γέλωτι ἦλθονthey went laughingX. A. 1.2.18. In conformity with (opp. to παρά): οὐκ ἐπέτρεψε τῷ δήμῳ παρὰ τοὺς νόμους ψηφίσασθαι, ἀλλὰ σὺν τοῖς νόμοις ἠναντιώθη κτλ. he did not permit the people to vote contrary to the laws, but, in conformity with them, opposed himself, etc. X. M. 4.4.2.

2. σύν in Composition

Together with (συμβιοῦν live with, συμπορεύεσθαι march in company with), together (συμβάλλειν conicere), completely (συμπληροῦν fill up), contraction in size (συντέμνειν cut short), and generally of union or connection. Standard prose uses συν- freely.


1697. ὑπέρ (Hom. also ὑπείρ) over, Lat. super. For the contrast with ἐπί, see 1689.

1. ὑπέρ with the Genitive

a. Local: from over: ““ὑπὲρ τῶν ἄκρων κατέβαινονthey came down over the heightsT. 4.25; over, abover: ““ὑπὲρ τῆς κώμης γήλοφος ἦνabove the village was a hillX. A. 1.10.12.

b. Other relations: in defence of, on behalf of: μαχόμενος ὑπὲρ ὑ_μῶν fighting for you (standing over to protect) P. L. 642c; in place of, in the name of: ““ἐγὼ λέξω καὶ ὑπὲρ σοῦ καὶ ὑπὲρ ἡμῶνI will speak both for you and for ourselvesX. C. 3.3.14. Purpose: ““ὑπὲρ τοῦ ταῦτα λαβεῖνin order to get thisD. 8.44; concerning, about (often = περί in Demos. and the later orators; in inscr. after 300 B. C.): ““φόβος ὑπὲρ τοῦ μέλλοντοςfear for the futureT. 7.71, ““μὴ περὶ τῶν δικαίων μηδ᾽ ὑπὲρ τῶν ἔξω πρα_γμάτωνnot about your just claims nor about your foreign interestsD. 6.35.

2. ὑπέρ with the Accusative

a. Local: ““ὑπὲρ οὐδὸν ἐβήσετοhe passed over the thresholdν 63, ““οἱ ὑπὲρ Ἑλλήσποντον οἰκοῦντεςthose who dwell beyond the HellespontX. A. 1.1.9.

b. Temporal ( = πρό) rare: ““ὑπὲρ τὰ Μηδικάbefore the Persian warsT. 1.41.

c. Measure: ““ὑπὲρ ἥμισυmore than halfX. C. 3.3.47, ““ὑπὲρ ἄνθρωπονbeyond the power of manP. L. 839d.

3. ὑπέρ in Composition

Over, above (ὑπερβάλλειν cross over, ὑπερέχειν trans. hold over, intr. be above), in behalf of, for (ὑπερμαχεῖν poet. fight for), exceedingly (ὑπερφρονεῖν be over-proud).


1698. ὑπό (Hom. also ὑπαί, Lesbian ὐπα-), under, by, Lat. sub.

1. ὑπό with the Genitive

a. Local (rare in Attic prose): out from under (poet., cp. ὑπέκ): ““ῥέει κρήνη ὑπὸ σπείουςa spring flows out from a caveι 140, ““λαβὼν βοῦν ὑπὸ ἁμάξηςtaking an ox from a wagonX. A. 6.4.25; under (of rest): τὰ ὑπὸ γῆς (a fixed phrase) ““ἅπανταall things under the earthP. A. 18b.

b. Other relations (metaphorically under the agency of): Direct agent (with passives and with verbs having a passive force); contrast διά, 1685. 2. d: ““σωθέντες ὑπὸ σοῦsaved by youX. A. 2.5.14, ““αἰσθόμενος ὑπ᾽ αὐτομόλωνinformed by desertersT. 5.2, ““εὖ ἀκούειν ὑπὸ ἀνθρώπωνto be well spoken of by menX. A. 7.7.23. With passive nouns: ““ ὑπὸ Μελήτου γραφήthe indictment brought by MeletusX. M. 4.4.4, ““κλῆσις ὑπὸ τῆς βουλῆςinvitation by the SenateD. 19.32. External cause: ““ἀπώλετο ὑπὸ λι_μοῦperished of hungerX. A. 1.5.5, ““οὐκ ἐπὶ πολὺ ὑπὸ τῶν ἰππέων ἐξιόντεςnot going out far because of the cavalryT. 6.37. Internal cause: ““ὑπὸ τῶν μεγίστων νι_κηθέντες, τι_μῆς καὶ δέους καὶ ὠφελία_ςconstrained by the strongest motives, honour and fear and profitT. 1.76. External accompaniment, as pressure, in ““ἐτόξευον ὑπὸ μαστί_γωνthey shot under the lashX. A. 3.4.25; sound, in ““ὑπὸ αὐλητῶνto the accompaniment of flute-playersT. 5.70; light, in ὑπὸ φα_νοῦ πορεύεσθαι to go with a torch X. R. L. 5.7. Manner: ““ὑπὸ σπουδῆςhastilyT. 3.33.

N. 1.—ὑπό with the genitive of a thing personifies the thing. The things so personified are (1) words implying a person, as λόγοι, (2) external circumstances, as συμφορά_, κίνδυ_νος, νόμος, (3) natural phenomena, as χειμών, (4) emotions, as φθόνος. The dative may also be employed. See 1493, 1494.

N. 2.—On ὑπό to express the personal agent with the perf. pass. see 1493.

2. ὑπό with the Dative

a. Local: under (of rest): ““ἑστάναι ὑπό τινι δένδρῳto stand under a treeP. Phil. 38c. ὑπό of place is more common with the dative than with the genitive.

b. Other relations: Agent (poetic, except with verbs signifying to educate): ὑπὸ παιδοτρίβῃ ἀγαθῷ πεπαιδευμένος educated under (the guidance of) a good master P. Lach. 184e. Coöperative cause (poet.): βῆ ὑπ᾽ ἀμύ_μονι πομπῇ he went under a blameless convoy Z 171. Subjection: οί ὑπὸ βασιλεῖ ὄντες the subjects of (i.e. those under) the king X. C. 8.1.6, ““ὑφ᾽ αὑτῷ ποιήσασθαιto bring under his own powerD. 18.40.

3. ὑπό with the Accusative

a. Local: Motion under: ὑπ᾽ αὐτὸν (τὸν λόφον) ““στήσα_ς τὸ στράτευμαhalting the army under the hillX. A. 1.10.14. Motion down under (poet.): ““εἶμ᾽ ὑπὸ γαῖανI shall go down under the earthΣ 333. Extension or position: αἱ ““ὑπὸ τὸ ὄρος κῶμαιthe villages at the foot of the mountainX. A. 7.4.5. Proximity: ὑποκειμένη Εὔβοια ὑπὸ τὴν Ἀττικήν Euboea lying close by (under) Attica I. 4.108.

b. Temporal (of time impending or in progress): ὑπὸ νύκτα at the approach of night (sub noctem) T. 2.92, ““ὑπὸ νύκταduring the nightHdt. 9.58, ““ὑπὸ τὴν εἰρήνηνat the time of the peaceI. 4.177.

c. Other relations. Subjection: ““ὑπὸ σφᾶς ποιεῖσθαιto bring under their own swayT. 4.60.

4. ὑπό in Composition

Under (ὑποτιθέναι place under), behind (ὑπολείπειν leave behind), secretly (cp. underhand; ὑποπέμπειν send as a spy), gradually (ὑποκαταβαίνειν descend by degrees), slightly (ὑποφαίνειν shine a little); of accompaniment (ὑπᾴδειν accompany with the voice); of an action performed by another (ὑποκηρύ_ττεσθαι have oneself proclaimed by the herald).


1699. Improper prepositions do not form compounds (1647).

1700. With the Genitive.

The list below contains some of the adverbial words used as prepositions.

[The more important words are printed in fat type. An asterisk denotes words used only in poetry.]

ἀγχοῦ near, poet. and Ionic (also with dat.). ἄνευ without, except, besides, away from, rarely after its case. ἀντία, ἀντίον facing, against, poet. and Ionic (also with dat.). ἄτερ without, apart from, away from. ἄχρι and μέχρι as far as, until (of place, time, and number). δίκην after the manner of (accus. of δίκη). δίχα* apart from, unlike, except. ἐγγύς near (with dat. poetical). εἴσω (ἔσω) within. ἑκάς far from, poetic and Ionic. ἑκατέρωθεν on both sides of. ἐκτός without. ἔμπροσθεν before. ἐναντίον in the presence of (poet. against, gen. or dat.). ἕνεκα, ἕνεκεν (Ion. εἵνεκα, εἵνεκεν) on account of, for the sake of, with regard to, usually postpositive. From such combinations as τούτου ἕνεκα arose, by fusion, the illegitimate preposition οὕνεκα (found chiefly in the texts of the dramatists). ἔνερθε* beneath. ἐντός within. ἔξω out of, beyond (of time), except. εὐθύ straight to. καταντικρύ over against. κρύφα, λάθρᾳ unbeknown to. μεταξύ between. μέχρι as far as. νόσφι* apart from. ὄπισθεν behind. πάρος* before. πέλας* near (also with dat.). πέρα_ beyond (ultra). πέρα_ν across (trans). πλήν except, as ““πλὴν ἀνδραπόδωνexcept slavesX. A. 2.4.27. Often an adverb or conjunction: ““παντὶ δῆλον πλὴν ἐμοίit is clear to everybody except meP. R. 529a. πλησίον near (also with dat.). πόρρω, πρόσω far from. πρίν* before (Pindar). σχεδόν* near. τῆλε* far from. χάριν for the sake of (accus. of χάρις), usually after its case. χωρίς without, separate from.

1701. With the Dative.

ἅμα together with, at the same time with. ὁμοῦ together with, close to.

1702. With the Accusative.

ὡς to, of persons only, used after verbs expressing or implying motion. Probably used especially in the language of the people.

hide References (351 total)
  • Cross-references from this page (351):
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    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 6.5.10
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 7.1.17
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 2.3.53
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 4.4.18
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 3.14.2
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 4.4.2
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 4.4.4
    • Xenophon, Agesilaus, 7.5
    • Xenophon, Ways and Means, 1.7
    • Xenophon, Agesilaus, 1.32
    • Xenophon, Hiero, 2.8
    • Xenophon, Economics, 4.21
    • Homer, Iliad, 11.486
    • Homer, Iliad, 11.527
    • Homer, Iliad, 18.30
    • Homer, Iliad, 18.333
    • Homer, Iliad, 23.100
    • Homer, Iliad, 23.886
    • Homer, Iliad, 4.481
    • Homer, Odyssey, 13.63
    • Homer, Odyssey, 3.8
    • Aristophanes, Lysistrata, 993
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.123
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.21
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.57
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.6
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.110
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.122
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.128
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.13
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.9
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.15
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.34
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.51
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.66
    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.2
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.34
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.86
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.29
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