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2162. A compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences, grammatically independent of one another and generally united by a coördinating conjunction. Thus, ““τῇ δὲ ὑστεραίᾳ ἐπορεύοντο διὰ τοῦ πεδίου καὶ Τισσαφέρνης εἵπετοbut on the next day they proceeded through the plain and Tissaphernes kept following themX. A. 3.4.18.

a. Abbreviated compound sentences, i.e. sentences containing a compound subject with a single verbal predicate or a single subject with a compound verbal predicate, are treated in this book as expanded simple sentences (923, 924).

2163. Greek has, among others, the following coördinating conjunctions, the uses of which in connecting sentences, clauses, phrases, and single words are described under Particles.

A. Copulative conjunctions: τέ (enclitic), καί and, τὲ. τέ, τὲ . . καί, καὶ . . . καί both . . . and, οὐδέ (μηδέ) and not, nor, οὔτε . . . οὔτε (μήτε . . . μήτε) neither . . . nor.

B. Adversative conjunctions: ἀλλά but, δέ (postpositive, often with μέν in the preceding clause) but, and, ἀτάρ but, yet, however, μέντοι (postpositive) however, yet, καίτοι and yet.

C. Disjunctive conjunctions: or, . . . either . . . or, εἴτε . . . εἴτε (without a verb) either . . . or.

D. Inferential conjunctions: ἄρα then, accordingly, οὖν therefore, then, νῦν (in the poetic and enclitic forms νυν and νυ_ν) then, therefore, τοίνυν now, then, τοιγάρ (poetic), τοιγάρτοι, τοιγαροῦν so then, therefore.

E. Causal conjunction: γάρ for.

2164. Compound sentences are divided into Copulative, Adversative, Disjunctive, Inferential, and Causal sentences.


2165. Two or more sentences (or words) independent in form and thought, but juxtaposed, i.e. coördinated without any connective, are asyndetic (from ἀσύνδετον not bound together), and such absence of connectives is called asyndeton.

a. The absence of connectives in a language so rich in means of coördination as is Greek is more striking than in other languages. Grammatical asyndeton cannot always be separated from rhetorical asyndeton. Grammatical asyndeton is the absence of a conjunction where a connective might have been used without marked influence on the character of the thought; as especially in explanatory sentences (often after a preparatory word, usually a demonstrative) which take up the matter just introduced; also where, in place of a conjunction, a resumptive word, such as οὗτος, τοιοῦτος, τοσοῦτος, ἐνταῦθα, οὕτω, etc., is employed. Rhetorical asyndeton is the absence of a conjunction where the following sentence contains a distinct advance in the thought and not a mere formal explanation appended to the foregoing sentence. Rhetorical asyndeton generally expresses emotion of some sort, and is the mark of liveliness, rapidity, passion, or impressiveness, of thought, each idea being set forth separately and distinctly. Thus, οὐκ ἀσεβής; οὐκ ὠμός; οὐκ ἀκάθαρτος; οὐ συ_κοφάντης; is he not impious? is he not brutal? is he not impure? is he not a pettifogger? D. 25.63.

2166. Asyndeton is frequent in rapid and lively descriptions.

““συμβαλόντες τὰ_ς ἀσπίδας ἐωθοῦντο, ἐμάχοντο, ἀπέκτεινον, ἀπέθνῃσκονinterlocking their shields, they shoved, they fought, they slew, they were slainX. H. 4.3.19, προσπεσόντες ἐμάχοντο, ἐώθουν ἐωθοῦντο, ἔπαιον ἐπαίοντο falling upon them, they fought; pushed (and) were pushed; struck (and) were struck X. C. 7.1.38. Also with anaphora (2167 c), as in ““ἔχεις πόλιν, ἔχεις τριήρεις, ἔχεις χρήματα, ἔχεις ἄνδρας τοσούτουςyou have a city, you have triremes, you have money, you have so many menX. A. 7.1.21. Cp. T. 7.71, D. 19.76, 19. 215, P. S. 197d.

2167. Asyndeton also appears when the unconnected sentence

a. Summarizes the main contents, or expresses the result, of the preceding. Thus, ““πάντ᾽ ἔχεις λόγονyou have the whole storyA. Ag. 582, ““ἀκηκόατε, ἑωρἁ_κατε, πεπόνθατε, ἔχετε: δικάζετεyou have heard, you have seen, you have suffered, you have the evidence; pronounce your judgmentL. 12.100, φυλακῇ μέντοι πρὸ τῶν πυλῶν ἐντευξόμεθα: ἔστι γὰρ ἀεὶ τεταγμένη. οὐκ ἂν μέλλειν δέοι, ἔφη Κῦρος, ἀλλ᾽ ἰέναι however, we shall meet with a guard in front of the gates, for one is always stationed there. We must not delay, but advance, said Cyrus X. C. 7.5.25. This is often the case when a demonstrative takes up the foregoing thought (as ἔδοξε ταῦτα X. A. 1.3.20) or continues the narrative, as in ἀκούσα_σι τοῖς στρατηγοῖς ταῦτα ἔδοξε τὸ στράτευμα συναγαγεῖν 4. 4. 19 (cp. 2061).

b. Expresses a reason or explains the preceding. Thus, μι_κρὸν δ᾽ ὕπνου λαχὼν εἶδεν ὄναρ: ἔδοξεν αὐτῷ . . . σκηπτὸς πεσεῖν κτλ. when he had snatched a little sleep, he saw a vision; a bolt of lightning seemed to him to fall, etc. X. A. 3.1.11, ““ἱκοῦ πρὸς οἴκους: πᾶς σε Καδμείων λεὼς καλεῖcome home; all the Cadmean folk calls theeS. O. C. 741. Here γάρ or ἄρα might have been used. So often after a preparatory word (often a demonstrative); as ταὐτὸν δή μοι δοκεῖ τοῦτ᾽ ἄρα καὶ περὶ τὴν ψυ_χὴν εἶναι: ἔνδηλα πάντα ἐστὶν ἐν τῇ ψυ_χῇ ἐπειδὰν γυμνωθῇ τοῦ σώματος κτλ. now it seems to me that this is the same with regard to the soul too; everything in the soul is open to view when a man is stripped of his body P. G. 524d. ““ἑνὶ μόνῳ προέχουσιν οἱ ἱππεῖς ἡμᾶς: φεύγειν αὐτοῖς ἀσφαλέστερόν ἐστιν ἡμῖνin one point alone has the cavalry the advantage of us: it is safer for them to run away than for usX. A. 3.2.19, and so when ὥσπερ is followed by οὕτω καί (P. R. 557c). Also when μέν γε . . . δέ take up what precedes, as ὅμοιός γε Σόλων νομοθέτης καί Τι_μοκράτης: μέν γε . . . δέ D. 24.106. Furthermore after τεκμήριον δέ (994), as T. 2.50.

c. Repeats a significant word or phrase of the earlier sentence (anaphora). Thus, ““καὶ ὅτῳ δοκεῖ ταῦτα, ἀνατεινάτω τὴν χεῖρα: ἀνέτειναν ἅπαντεςand let him who approves this, hold up his hand; they all held up their handsX. A. 3.2.33. In poetry a thought is often repeated in a different form by means of a juxtaposed sentence (S. Tr. 1082).

d. Sets forth a contrast in thought to the preceding. This is commoner in poetry than in prose. Thus, ““μέλλοντα ταῦτα: τῶν προκειμένων τι χρὴ πρά_σσεινthis lies in the future; the present must be thy careS. Ant. 1334.

e. Introduces a new thought or indicates a change to a new form of expression. Thus, ἀλλ᾽ ἰτέον, ἔφη. πρῶτόν με ὑπομνήσατε ἐλέγετε but we must proceed, said he. First recall to my mind what you were saying P. Ph. 91c.

f. Is introduced by a word stressed by emotion, as ταῦτα D. 3.32, ἐγώ 4. 29.

On juxtaposition of participles, see 2147.


2168. The term parataxis (παράταξις arranging side by side), as here employed, is restricted to the arrangement of two independent sentences side by side, though one is in thought subordinate to the other.

a. In Greek, παράταξις means simply coördination in general, as ὑπόταξις means subordination.

2169. In many cases parataxis is a common form of expression not only in the earlier language of Homer, but also in Attic prose and poetry.

So frequently in Attic prose with καί, τὲ . . . καί, ἅμα . . . καί, εὐθὺς . . . καί, and with δέ meaning for. Thus, ἤδη δὲ ἦν ὀψὲ . . . καὶ οἱ Κορίνθιοι πρύμναν ἐκρούοντο it was already late and (for when) the Corinthians started to row astern T. 1.50, καὶ ἤδη τε ἦν περὶ πλήθουσαν ἀγορὰ_ν καὶ ἔρχονται . . . κήρυ_κες and it was already about the time when the market-place fills and ( = when) heralds arrived X. A. 2.1.7, ““καὶ ἅμα ταῦτ᾽ ἔλεγε καὶ ἀπῄειand as soon as he said this, he departedX. H. 7.1.28, ἐπίστασθε μόνοι τῶν Ἑλλήνων τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς ἄνδρας τι_μᾶν: εὑρήσετε δὲ . . . παρ᾽ ὑ_μῖν στρατηγοὺς ἀγαθοὺς (ἀνακειμένους) you alone among the Greeks know how to honour men of merit; for you will find statues of brave generals set up among you Lyc. 51. Cp. σκέψασθε δέ T. 1.143.

a. Temporal conjunctions, as ἡνίκα, are rarely used to introduce such clauses, which often indicate a sudden or decisive occurrence or simultaneous action.

b. Thucydides is especially fond of καί or τέ to coördinate two ideas, one of which is subordinate to the other.

2170. Parataxis often occurs when a thought naturally subordinate is made independent for the sake of emphasis or liveliness. Such rhetorical parataxis occurs chiefly in the orators and in Pindar. So especially when μέν and δέ are used to coördinate two contrasted clauses, the former of which is logically subordinate and inserted to heighten the force of the latter. Here English uses whereas, while. Thus, ““αἰσχρόν ἐστι, εἰ ἐγὼ μὲν τὰ ἔργα τῶν ὑπὲρ ὑ_μῶν πόνων ὑπέμεινα, ὑ_μεῖς δὲ μηδὲ τοὺς λόγους αὐτῶν ἀνέξεσθεit is a shame that, whereas I have undergone the toil of exertions in your cause, you will not endure even their recitalD. 18.160.

2171. There exist many traces in Greek of the use of the older coördination in place of which some form of subordination was adopted, either entirely or in part, in the later language.

a. Thus several relative pronouns and adverbs were originally demonstrative, and as such pointed either to the earlier or the later clause. So , , τό (1105, cp. 1114): τεύχεα δ᾽ ἐξενάριζε, τά οἱ πόρε χάλκεος Ἄρης (H 146) meant originally he stripped him of his arms; these brazen Ares had given him. τέως so long is properly demonstrative, but has acquired a relative function in ““καὶ τέως ἐστὶ καιρός, ἀντιλάβεσθε τῶν πρα_γμάτωνand while there is time, take our policy in handD. 1.20.

2172. Homer often places two thoughts in juxtaposition without any regard for logical connection. This is especially common with δέ, τέ, καί, αὐτάρ, ἀλλά. Thus, πολὺς δ᾽ ὀρυμαγδὸς ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ ἀνδρῶν ἠδὲ κυνῶν, ἀπό τέ σφισιν (for οἶς) ““ὕπνος ὄλωλενand there is loud clamour around him of men and of dogs, and sleep is gone from themΚ 185.

a. So also in clauses preceded by a relative word; as εἷος ταῦθ᾽ ὥρμαινε . . ., ἐκ δ᾽ Ἑλένη θαλάμοιο . . . ἤλυθεν while he was pondering on this, (but) Helen came forth from her chamber δ 120, ὅς κε θεοῖς ἐπιπείθηται, μάλα τ᾽ ἔκλυον αὐτοῦ whoever obeys the gods, (and) him they hear Α 218.

b. This use appears even in Attic prose; as οἰκου̂ͅσι δ᾽ ἐν μιᾷ τῶν νήσων οὐ μεγάλῃ, καλεῖται δὲ (for καλεῖται) Λιπάρα_ they dwell in one of the islands that is not large, and it (which) is called Lipara T. 3.88. Cp. also 2837.

hide References (34 total)
  • Cross-references from this page (34):
    • Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 582
    • Demosthenes, Olynthiac 1, 20
    • Demosthenes, Olynthiac 3, 32
    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 160
    • Demosthenes, On the False Embassy, 76
    • Demosthenes, Against Timocrates, 106
    • Demosthenes, Against Aristogiton 1, 63
    • Homer, Iliad, 10.185
    • Homer, Iliad, 1.218
    • Homer, Odyssey, 4.120
    • Lysias, Against Eratosthenes, 100
    • Plato, Republic, 557c
    • Plato, Phaedo, 91c
    • Plato, Symposium, 197d
    • Plato, Gorgias, 524d
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 1334
    • Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus, 741
    • Sophocles, Trachiniae, 1082
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.50
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.71
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.1.7
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.2.33
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.3.20
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.1.11
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.2.19
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.4.18
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 7.1.21
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 7.1.38
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 7.5.25
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 4.3.19
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 7.1.28
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.88
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.143
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.50
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