3004. Anacolūthon (ἀνακόλουθον inconsequent), or grammatical inconsistency, is inadvertent or purposed deviation in the structure of a sentence by which a construction started at the beginning is not followed out consistently. Anacoluthon is sometimes real, sometimes only slight or apparent. It is natural to Greek by reason of the mobility and elasticity of that language; but in English it could not be tolerated to an equal extent because our tongue—a speech of few inflected forms—is much more rigid than Greek.

3005. Anacoluthon is, in general, caused either (a) by the choice of some form of expression more convenient or more effective than that for which the sentence was grammatically planned; at times, too, the disturbing influence is the insertion of a brief expression of an additional thought not foreseen at the start. Or (b) by the intrusion of some explanation requiring a parenthesis of such an extent that the connection is obscured or the continuation of the original structure made difficult. In this case the beginning may be repeated, or what has already been said may be summed up in a different grammatical form and sometimes with the addition of a resumptive particle, such as δή, οὖν well then, then, as I was saying (X. A. 1.8.13, 3. 1. 20, X. C. 3.3.9). So with δέ (T. 8.29. 2).

3006. Anacoluthon usually produces the effect of naturalness and liveliness, sometimes of greater clearness (as after long parentheses), or of brevity, force, or concentration.

3007. Anacoluthon is either natural or artificial. Natural anacoluthon is seen in the loose and discursive style of Herodotus; in the closely packed sentences of Thucydides, who hurries from one thought to another with the least expenditure of words; and in the slovenliness of Andocides. Artificial or rhetorical anacoluthon is the result of a deliberate purpose to give to written language the vividness, naturalness, and unaffected freedom of the easy flow of conversation, and is best seen in the dialogues of Plato. Such anacoluthon is usually graceful and free from obscurity.

3008. There are very many forms of anacoluthon, e.g.

a. Many cases are due to the fact that a writer conforms his construction, not to the words which he has just used, but to another way in which the antecedent thought might have been expressed: the construction πρὸς τὸ νοούμενον (or σημαινόμενον) according to what is thought. Cp. 2148 and X. H. 2.2.3, S. O. T. 353, E. Hec. 970.

b. Some cases are due to changes in the subject, as T. 1.18. 2.

c. Many cases occur in connection with the use of a participle (2147, 2148).

d. Coördinate clauses connected by τὲ . . . καί, καὶ . . . καί, οὔτε . . . οὔτε, . . . often show anacoluthon, especially when a finite verb takes the place of a participle. Cp. 2147 c, and T. 5.61. 4, 6. 32. 3, 7. 47. 1-2.

e. The nominative “in suspense” may stand at the head of a sentence instead of another case required by the following construction. This involves a redundant pronoun. Thus, Πρόξενος δὲ καὶ Μένων, ἐπείπερ εἰσὶν ὑ_μέτεροι εὐεργέται . . . πέμψατε αὐτοὺς δεῦρο (for Πρόξενον καὶ Μένωνα . . . πέμψατε δεῦρο) X. A. 2.5.41. Cp. “The prince that feeds great natures, they will slay him:” Ben Jonson.

f. The accusative often stands absolutely when at the head of a sentence. Thus, ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ τι_μά_ς γε . . ., τῶν μὲν μεθέξει καὶ γεύσεται ἑκών, α_<*>`ς ἂν ἡγῆται ἀμείνω αὑτὸν ποιήσειν, ἃ_ς δ᾽ . . . φεύξεται but furthermore as regards honours, those he will partake of and be glad to taste which he thinks will make him a better man, but others he will shun P. R. 591e, Ἕλληνας τοὺς ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ οἰκοῦντας οὐδέν πω σαφὲς λέγεται εἰ ἕπονται (for λέγουσιν εἰ ἕπονται or λέγεται ἕπεσθαι) as to the Greeks who dwell in Asia there is as yet no certain intelligence whether they are to accompany the expedition X. C. 2.1.5.

g. A main clause may take the construction of a parenthetical clause (T. 4.93. 2). Here belongs the attraction into the relative clause of a verb that should have been principal. So after ὡς ἤκουσα, ὡς οἶμαι, ὡς λέγουσι, etc. Thus, τόδε γε μήν, ὡς οἶμαι, περὶ αὐτοῦ ἀναγκαιότατον εἶναι (for ἐστὶ) λέγειν this indeed is, as I think, most necessary to state about it P. Phil. 20d. Often in Hdt., as ὡς δ᾽ ἐγὼ ἤκουσα . . . εἶναι αὐτὸν Ἰδανθύρσου . . . πάτρων but as I have heard he was the uncle of Idanthyrsus on the father's side 4. 76. A construction may be introduced by ὅτι or ὡς and then pass to the infinitive, or the infinitive may precede and a finite verb follow (2628).

h. After a subordinate clause with parentheses the main clause sometimes follows in the form of an independent sentence (P. A. 28c, cp. 36 a).

i. An infinitive may resume the idea set forth by the principal verb; as τοῦ δὲ θεοῦ τάττοντος, ὡς ἐγὼ ᾠήθην τε καὶ ὑπέλαβον, φιλοσοφοῦντά με δεῖν ζῆν κτλ. whereas when God orders me, as I think and believe, to pass my life in the pursuit of wisdom, etc. P. A. 28e. Cp. X. H. 7.4.35.

j. Anacoluthon is sometimes due to the desire to maintain similarity of form between contrasted expressions; as ““τοὺς μὲν γὰρ ἱπποκενταύρους οἶμαι ἔγωγε πολλοῖς μὲν ἀπορεῖν τῶν ἀνθρώποις ηὑρημένων ἀγαθῶν ὅπως δεῖ χρῆσθαι, πολλοῖς δὲ τῶν ἵπποις πεφυ_κότων ἡδέων πῶς αὐτῶν χρὴ ἀπολαύεινfor I think that the horse-centaurs were at a loss how to make use of many conveniences devised for men and how to enjoy many of the pleasures natural to horsesX. C. 4.3.19. Here πολλοῖς δέ is used as if it were to be governed by χρῆσθαι, instead of which αὐτῶν ἀπολαύειν is substituted.

3009. Anadiplōsis (ἀναδίπλωσις doubling) is the rhetorical repetition of one or several words. Cp. “The Isles of Greece, the Isles of Greece, where burning Sappho loved and sung:” Byron.

Θῆβαι δέ, Θῆβαι πόλις ἀστυγείτων, μεθ᾽ ἡμέρα_ν μίαν ἐκ μέσης τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἀνήρπασται Thebes, Thebes, a neighbouring city, in the course of one day has been extirpated from the midst of Greece Aes. 3.133.

3010. Anaphora (ἀναφορά_ carrying back) is the repetition, with emphasis, of the same word or phrase at the beginning of several successive clauses. This figure is also called epanaphora or epanalepsis. Cp. “Strike as I would Have struck those tyrants! Strike deep as my curse! Strike! and but once:” Byron.

““οὗτοι γὰρ πολλοὺς μὲν τῶν πολι_τῶν εἰς τοὺς πολεμίους ἐξήλασαν, πολλοὺς δ᾽ ἀδίκως ἀποκτείναντες ἀτάφους ἐποίησαν, πολλοὺς δ᾽ ἐπιτἱ_μους ὄντας ἀτί_μους κατέστησανmany of the citizens they drove out to the enemy; many they slew unjustly and left unburied; many who were in possession of their civic rights they deprived of themL. 12.21. Cp. D. 18.48, 75, 121, 310.

3011. Anastrophe (ἀναστροφή return) is the use, at the beginning of one clause, of the same word that concluded the preceding clause. Also called epanastrophe. Cp. “Has he a gust for blood? Blood shall fill his cup.”

οὐ δήπου Κτησιφῶντα δύναται διώκειν δι᾽ ἐμέ, ἐμὲ δ᾽ εἴπερ ἐξελέγξειν ἐνόμιζεν, αὐτὸν οὐκ ἂν ἐγράψατο for surely it cannot be that he is prosecuting Ctesiphon on my account, and yet would not have indicted me myself, if he had thought that he could convict me D. 18.13.

3012. Antistrophe (ἀντιστροφή turning about) is the repetition of the same word or phrase at the end of successive clauses.

ὅστις δ᾽ ἐν τῷ πρώτῳ λόγῳ τὴν ψῆφον αἰτεῖ ὅρκον αἰτεῖ, νόμον αἰτεῖ, δημοκρατία_ν αἰτεῖ whoever in his first speech asks for your vote as a favour, asks the surrender of your oath, asks the surrender of the law, asks the surrender of the democratic constitution Aes. 3.198.

3013. Antithesis (ἀντίθεσις opposition) is the contrast of ideas expressed by words which are the opposite of, or are closely contrasted with, each other. Cp. “Wit is negative, analytical, destructive; Humor is creative:” Whipple.

δι᾽ ὧν ἐκ χρηστῶν φαῦλα τὰ πρά_γματα τῆς πόλεως γέγονε, διὰ τούτων ἐλπίζετε τῶν αὐτῶν πρά_ξεων ἐκ φαύλων αὐτὰ χρηστὰ γενήσεσθαι; do you expect that the affairs of state will become prosperous instead of bad by the same measures by which they have become bad instead of prosperous? D. 2.26.

a. Antithesis is sometimes extended to a parallelism in sense effected (1) by the use of two words of opposite meaning in the expression of one idea, (2) by the opposition of ideas which are not specifically contrasted in words.

3014. Aporia (ἀπορία_ doubt) is an artifice by which a speaker feigns doubt as to where he shall begin or end or what he shall do or say, etc. Cp. “Then the steward said within himself, What shall I do?” St. Luke 16. 3.

““ἀπορῶ τοῦ πρώτου μνησθῶI am uncertain what I shall recall firstD. 18.129. When the doubt is between two courses it is often called diaporēsis.

3015. Aposiopēsis (ἀποσιώπησις becoming silent) is a form of ellipse by which, under the influence of passionate feeling or of modesty, a speaker comes to an abrupt halt. Examples 2352 d, D. 18.3, 22, 195, S. O. T. 1289, Ar. Vesp. 1178. Cp. “Massachusetts and her people . . . hold him, and his love . . . and his principles, and his standard of truth in utter—what shall I say? —anything but respect:” Webster.

3016. Asyndeton (ἀσύνδετον not bound together) is the absence of conjunctions in a series of coördinate words or phrases. See 2165 ff.

a. Here is sometimes placed the omission of the verb after μή (μὴ σύ γε, μὴ γάρ, etc.); as μὴ τριβὰ_ς ἔτι (ποιεῖσθε) no more delays! S. Ant. 577, τίς οὐχὶ κατέπτυσεν ἂν σοῦ; μὴ γὰρ (εἰπὲ) τῆς πόλεως γε, μηδ᾽ ἐμοῦ who would not have reviled you? Do not say the State, nor me D. 18.200. Cp. 946, 1599.

3017. Brachylogy (βραχυλογία_ brevity of diction, abbreviated expres. sion or construction) is a concise form of expression by which an element is not repeated or is omitted when its repetition or use would make the thought or the grammatical construction complete. The suppressed element must be supplied from some corresponding word in the context, in which case it often appears with some change of form or construction; or it must be taken from the connection of the thought.

a. Brachylogy and ellipse cannot always be distinguished sharply. In ellipse the suppressed word is not to be supplied from a corresponding word in the context; and, in general, ellipse is less artificial and less dependent on the momentary and arbitrary will of the speaker or writer. Compendious Comparison (1501), Praegnans Constructio (3044), and Zeugma (3048) are forms of brachylogy.

3018. There are many forms of brachylogy; for example:

a. One verbal form must often be supplied from another; e.g. a passive from an active, an infinitive from a finite verb, a participle from an infinitive. Thus, τὴν τῶν πέλας δῃοῦν μᾶλλον τὴν ἑαυτῶν ὁρᾶν (δῃουμένην) rather to ravage the territory of their neighbours than to see their own (being ravaged) T. 2.11, ταῦτα ἐγώ σοι οὐ πείθομαι . . ., οἶμαι δὲ οὐδὲ ἄλλον ἀνθρώπων οὐδένα (πείθεσθαί σοι) of this I am not persuaded by you and I do not believe that any other human being is either P. A. 25e, οὔτε πάσχοντες κακὸν οὐδὲν οὔτε μέλλοντες (πάσχειν) neither suffering, nor being likely (to suffer), any evil I. 12.103, ἀνεχώρησαν δὲ καὶ οἱ Αθηναῖοι . . . , ἐπειδὴ καὶ ἐκείνους εἶδον (ἀναχωρήσαντας) and the Athenians too withdrew when they saw that they (the Lacedaemonians) had done so T. 3.16.

b. A verb must often be supplied from a coördinate or subordinate clause either preceding or following. Thus, ἔγειρε καὶ σὺ τήνδ᾽, ἐγὼ δὲ σέ do you wake her, as I (wake) you A. Eum. 140, ἐὰ_ν δὲ αὐτόχειρ μὲν μή (), ““βουλεύσῃ δὲ θάνατόν τις ἄλλος ἑτέρῳif a person shall not kill with his own hand, but if some one shall suggest murder to anotherP. L. 872a; φίλους νομίζουσ᾽ οὕσπερ ἂν πόσις σέθεν (νομίζῃ) regarding as friends even those whom thy husband (so regards) E. Med. 1153. A verb is rarely supplied from the subordinate to the main construction.

c. In clauses with δεῖ, χρή etc.: ἵνα φαίνησθε ἀμύ_νοντες οἷς δεῖ (ἀμύ_νειν) that you may seem to assist those you ought (to assist) T. 3.13. When a form of τυγχάνω stands in the subordinate clause; ἀπέπλευσαν ὡς ἕκαστοι ἔτυχον (ἀποπλέοντες) they sailed away as each best could T. 4.25. In conditional clauses when the protasis indicates that the assertion made in the apodosis holds true of a person or a thing more than of any other person or thing (εἴπερ τις καὶ ἄλλος, εἴπερ που, εἴπερ ποτέ, ὥς τις καὶ ἄλλος, etc.); as συμφέρει δ᾽ ὑ_μῖν, εἴπερ τῳ καὶ ἄλλῳ, τὸ νι_κᾶν victory is of advantage to you, if it (is of advantage) to any X. C. 3.3.42. Hence εἴ τις (που, ποθεν) is almost = τὶς, etc. (T. 7.21. 5).

d. Compound verbs (especially those compounded with μετά and ἐξ) are often so used that the force both of the compound and of the simple verb is requisite to the meaning. Thus, (οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι) μετέγνωσαν Κερκυ_ραίοις ξυμμαχία_ν μὴ ποιήσασθαι the Athenians changed their minds and decided not to make an alliance with the Corcyraeans T. 1.44.

e. A compound verb on its second occurrence often omits the preposition (rarely vice versa); as ἀπεργάζηται . . . εἰργάζετο P. Ph. 104d. Euripides is fond of such collocations as ὑπάκουσον ἄκουσον Alc. 400. Cp. the difference in metrical value of repeated words in Shakespeare, as “These víolént desires have víolent ends.”

N.—In καὶ ξυμμετίσχω καὶ φέρω τῆς αἰτία_ς I share and bear alike the guilt (S. Ant. 537) φέρω, though capable of taking the partitive genitive, is influenced by ξυμμετίσχω and has the force of ξυμφέρω.

f. From a following verb of special meaning a verb of more general meaning, such as ποιεῖν, γίγνεσθαι, εἶναι, must be supplied with the phrases οὐδὲν ἄλλο , ἄλλο τι , τί ἄλλο . Examples in 946, 2652, 2778.

g. A verb of saying or thinking must often be supplied from a foregoing verb of exhorting, commanding, announcing, or from any other verb that implies saying or thinking. Thus, Κριτόβουλος καὶ Ἀπολλόδωρος κελεύουσί με τριά_κοντα μνῶν τι_μήσασθαι, αὐτοὶ δὲ ἐγγυᾶσθαι Critobulus and Apollodorus urge me to set a penalty of thirty minae, and (say) that they themselves are sureties P. A. 38b.

h. When two verbs taking the same or different cases have an object in common, that object is expressed only once, and usually is dependent on the nearer verb. See 1634, 1635.

i. A substantive or a verb is often to be supplied from a substantive or a verb related in meaning: ναυμαχήσαντας μίαν (ναυμαχία_ν) having fought one (sea-fight) Ar. Ran. 693, μὲν ἔπειτα εἰς ἅλα ἆλτο . . ., Ζεὺς δὲ ἑὸν πρὸς δῶμα (ἔβη) she then sprang into the sea, but Zeus (went) to his abode A 532.

j. The subject of a sentence is often taken from a preceding object or from some other preceding noun in an oblique case without a pronoun of reference to aid the transition. Thus, ἐξεφόβησαν μὲν τοὺς πολλοὺς οὐκ εἰδότας τὰ πρα_σσόμενα, καὶ ἔφευγον (οἱ πολλοί) they frightened away most of the citizens, who were in ignorance of the plot and began to fly T. 8.44. Cp. 943.

k. In general an object is frequently omitted when it can readily be supplied from the context. Thus, ἐγχεῖν (τὸν οἶνον) ἐκέλενε he gave orders to pour in (the wine) X. A. 4.3.13. An unemphatic pronoun in an oblique case is often omitted when it can be supplied from a preceding noun. Cp. 1214.

l. A dependent noun must often be supplied, in a different construction, from one coördinate clause to another. Thus, ὅρκους ἔλαβον καὶ ἔδοσαν παρὰ Φαρναβάζου they received oaths from Pharnabazus and gave him theirs X. H. 1.3.9. So in contrasts where one member is to be supplied from the other, as οὐκ ἐκεῖνος (ἐκείνην), ἀλλ᾽ ἐκείνη κεῖνον ἐνθάδ᾽ ἤγαγεν he did not bring (her) here, but she brought him E. Or. 742.

m. From a preceding word its opposite must often be supplied, especially an affirmative after a negative. Thus, ἀμελήσα_ς ὧνπερ οἱ πολλοὶ (ἐπιμελοῦνται) neglecting the very things which most people (care for) P. A. 36b. This laxity of expression is especially frequent in the case of ἕκαστος, τὶς, or πάντες, to be supplied after οὐδείς (μηδείς), as μηδεὶς τὴν ὑπερβολὴν θαυμάσῃ, ἀλλὰ μετ᾽ εὐνοία_ς δ̀ λέγω θεωρησάτω let no one wonder at the extravagance of my statement, but let (every one) consider kindly what I say D. 18.199. Cp. “No person held to service or labor in one state . . ., escaping into another, shall . . . be discharged from said service or labor, but shall be delivered up, etc.”: U. S. Constitution.

n. The same word though placed only once may stand in two different constructions; as αἰνέω δὲ καὶ τόνδε (νόμον) . . . μήτε τῶν ἄλλων Περσέων μηδένα τῶν ““ἑωυτοῦ οἰκετέων . . . ἀνήκεστον πάθος ἔρδεινand I approve also this custom that no one of the other Persians shall do irremediable hurt to any one of his own servantsHdt. 1.137. Here μηδένα is both subject and object of ἔρδειν.

o. An assertion may be made concerning an action or a thing when the absence of that action or thing is meant (res pro rei defectu). Thus, εἴ τ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ὁγ᾽ εὐχωλῆς ἐπιμέμφεται whether then he blames us on account of an (unfulfilled) vow A 65, ἐν καὶ περὶ χρημάτων καὶ περὶ ἀτι_μία_ς ἄνθρωποι κινδυ_νεύουσιν on which charge men run the risk both of (loss of) money and civil degradation D. 29.16. So δύναμις powerlessness, φυλακή neglect of the watch, μελέτημα lack of liberal exercise.

3019. Catachrēsis (κατάχρησις misuse of a word) is the extension of the meaning of a word beyond its proper sphere; especially a violent metaphor. In English: “a palatable tone,” “to take arms against a sea of troubles.”

δαιμόνιος extraordinary, θαυμάσιος decided, strange, capital, ἀμηχάνως and ὑπερφυῶς decidedly, ὑποπτεύω expect, ναυστολεῖν χθόνα E. Med. 682. Such usages are less often occasioned by the poverty of the language than by the caprice of the writer.

3020. Chiasmus (χι_ασμός marking with diagonal lines like a X) is the crosswise arrangement of contrasted pairs to give alternate stress. By this figure both the extremes and the means are correlated. Cp. “Sweet is the breath of morn, her rising sweet”: Milton.

““ἓν σῶμ᾽ ἔχων καὶ ψυ_χὴν μίανhaving one body and one soulD. 19.227.

So τοσοῦτον σὺ ἐμοῦ σοφώτερος εἶ τηλικούτου ὄντος τηλικόσδ᾽ ὤν; are you at your age so much wiser than I at mine? P. A. 25d, πᾶν μὲν ἔργον πᾶν δ᾽ ἔπος λέγοντάς τε καὶ πρά_ττοντας lit. doing every deed and uttering every word P. R. 494e, ““δουλεύειν καὶ ἄρχεσθαι . . . ἄρχειν καὶ δεσπόζεινto be a slave and be ruled . . . to rule and be a masterP. Ph. 80a.

3021. Climax (κλῖμαξ ladder) is an arrangement of clauses in succession whereby the last important word of one is repeated as the first important word of the next, each clause in turn surpassing its predecessor in the importance of the thought. Cp. “But we glory in tribulations also: knowing that tribulation worketh patience . . . and experience, hope; and hope maketh not ashamed”: Romans v. 3-5.

““οὐκ εἶπον μὲν ταῦτα, οὐκ ἔγραψα δέ, οὐδ᾽ ἔγραψα μέν, οὐκ ἐπρέσβευσα δέ, οὐδ᾽ ἐπρέσβευσα μέν, οὐκ ἔπεισα δὲ ΘηβαίουςI did not utter these words without proposing a motion; nor did I propose a motion without becoming ambassador; nor did I become ambassador without convincing the ThebansD. 18.179; cp. 4. 19. This figure is very rare in Greek.

3022. Ellipse (ἔλλειψις leaving out, defect) is the suppression of a word or of several words of minor importance to the logical expres sion of the thought, but necessary to the construction. Ellipse gives brevity, force, and liveliness; it is usually readily to be supplied, often unconscious, and appears especially in common phrases, constructions, and expressions of popular speech (such as ἐξ ὀνύχων λέοντα to judge a lion from his claws).

a. Ellipse occurs in the case of substantives and pronouns, subject, object, finite verbs, main clauses, and (less often) subordinate clauses. See the Index under Ellipse.

3023. Enallage (ἐναλλαγή interchange) is the substitution of one grammatical form for another, as plural for singular (1006-1008). Thus: “They fall successive, and successive rise”: Pope.

3024. Euphemism (εὐφημισμός lit. speaking favourably) is the substitution of a less direct expression in place of one whose plainer meaning might be unpleasant or offensive. Thus: “The merchant prince had stopped payment” (for “became bankrupt”).

συμφορά_ occurrence for ἀτύχημα misfortune, ἑτέρως otherwise = not well, εὐφρόνη ‘the kindly time’ for νύξ night, εὐώνυμος left (lit. of good omen, whereas the left was the unlucky side), εἴ τι πάθοι if anything should happen to him = if he should die.

3025. Hendiadys (ἓν διὰ δυοῖν one by two) is the use of two words connected by a copulative conjunction to express a single complex idea; especially two substantives instead of one substantive and an adjective or attributive genitive.

χρόνῳ καὶ πολιορκίᾳ by length of time and siege = by a long siege D. 19.123, ““ἐν ἁλὶ κύ_μασί τεin the waves of the seaE. Hel. 226, ““ἀσπίδων τε καὶ στρατοῦ ὡπλισμένου στρατοῦarmed forceS. El. 36.

3026. Homoioteleuton (ὁμοιοτέλευτος ending alike) is end-rhyme in clauses or verses.

τὴν μὲν ἀρχὴν εἰς τὸν πόλεμον κατέστησαν ὡς ἐλευθερώσοντες τοὺς Ἕλληνας, ἐπὶ δὲ τελευτῆς οὕτω πολλοὺς αὐτῶν ἐκδότους ἐποίησαν, καὶ τῆς μὲν ἡμετέρα_ς πόλεως τοὺς Ἴωνας ἀπέστησαν, ἐξ ἧς ἀπῴκησαν καὶ δι᾽ ἣν πολλάκις ἐσώθησαν in the beginning they entered upon the war with the avowed object of liberating the Greeks, at the end they have betrayed so many of them, and have caused the Ionians to revolt from our State, from which they emigrated and thanks to which they were often saved I. 4.122. Cp. S. Aj. 62-65. Homoioteleuton is most marked in paromoiosis.

3027. Hypallage (ὑπαλλαγή exchange) is a change in the relation of words by which a word, instead of agreeing with the case it logically qualifies, is made to agree grammatically with another case. Hypallage is almost always confined to poetry.

““ἐμὰ κήδεα θυ_μοῦthe troubles of my spiritξ 197, νεῖκος ἀνδρῶν ξύναιμον kindred strife of men for strife of kindred men S. Ant. 794. Here the adjective virtually agrees with the rest of the phrase taken as a compound.

3028. Hyperbaton (ὑπέρβατον transposition) is the separation of words naturally belonging together. Such displacement usually gives prominence to the first of two words thus separated, but sometimes to the second also. In prose hyperbaton is less common than in poetry, but even in prose it is frequent, especially when it secures emphasis on an important idea by placing it at the beginning or end of a sentence. At times hyperbaton may mark passionate excitement. Sometimes it was adopted to gain rhythmical effect. Thus: “Such resting found the sole of unblest feet”: Milton.

σὺ δὲ αὐτός, πρὸς θεῶν, Μένων, τί φῂς ἀρετὴν εἶναι; but what do you yourself, in heaven's name, Meno, say virtue is? P. Men. 71d, πρός σε γονάτων (946) by thy knees (I entreat) thee E. Med. 324, ““ὑφ᾽ ἑνὸς τοιαῦτα πέπονθεν Ἑλλὰς ἀνθρώπουfrom one man Greece endured such sufferingsD. 18.158, κρατῶν τοὺς ὁποιουσδήποθ᾽ ὑ_μεῖς ἐξεπέμπετε στρατηγούς conquering the generals you kept sending out—such as they were 18. 146.

a. The displacement is often caused by the intrusion of a clause of contrast or explanation. Thus ““τοὺς περὶ Ἀρχία_ν . . . οὐ ψῆφον ἀνεμείνατε ἀλλ᾽ . . . ἐτι_μωρήσασθεyou did not postpone your vote but took vengeance upon Archias and his companyX. H. 7.3.7.

b. Adverbs and particles may be displaced. Thus, ““οὕτω τις ἔρως δεινόςa passion so terribleP. Th. 169c, ““πολὺ γὰρ τῶν ἵππων ἔτρεχον θᾶττονfor they ran much faster than the horsesX. A. 1.5.2; so εὖ, μάλα; on ἄν see 1764.

c. Prepositions often cause the displacement (1663, 2690). On displacement in connection with participles see 1166, 1167; with the negatives, see 2690 ff.

d. Similar or contrasted words are often brought into juxtaposition. Here a nominative precedes an oblique case. Thus, ἀπὸ τῶν ὑ_μετέρων ὑ_μῖν πολεμεῖ συμμάχων he wages war on you from the resources of your allies D. 4.34, οὐ γάρ τίς με βίῃ γε ἑκὼν ἀέκοντα δίηται for no one shall chase me by force, he willing me unwilling H 197. Note ἄλλος ἄλλο (ἄλλοθεν, ἄλλοτε, etc.), αὐτὸς αὑτοῦ.

e. Construction ἀπὸ κοινοῦ.—In poetry an attributive genitive or an object, common to two coördinate words, is often placed with the second only, as ““φράζων ἅλωσιν Ἰ_λίου τ᾽ ἀνάστασινtelling of the capture and overthrow of IliumA. Ag. 587.

3029. Hypophora (ὑποφορἁ_ putting under) is the statement of an objection (together with its refutation) which a speaker supposes to be made by an opponent or makes himself. Both objection and reply often take the form of questions (2654, 2785, 2819). Cp. “But I hear it continually rung in my ears . . . ‘what will become of the preamble, if you repeal this tax?’”: Burke.

τί οὖν, ἄν τις εἴποι, ταῦτα λέγεις ἡμῖν νῦν; ἵνα γνῶτ᾽ κτλ. why then, some one will say, do you tell us this now? In order that you may know, etc. D. 1.14.

3030. Hysteron Proteron (ὕστερον πρότερον later earlier) is an arrangement reversing the natural order of time in which events occur. It is used when an event, later in time, is regarded as more important than one earlier in time.

τράφεν ἠδὲ γένοντο were bred and born A 251 (so τροφὴ καὶ γένεσις X. M. 3.5.10; cp. “for I was bred and born”: Shakespeare), ““εἵματά τ᾽ ἀμφιέσα_σα θυώδεα καὶ λούσα_σαhaving put on fragrant robes and washedε 264.

3031. Isocōlon (ἰσόκωλον having equal members) is the use of two or more sequent cola (clauses) containing an equal number of syllables.

τοῦ μὲν ἐπίπονον καὶ φιλοκίνδυ_νον τὸν βίον κατέστησεν, τῆς δὲ περίβλεπτον καὶ περιμάχητον τὴν φύσιν ἐποίησεν the life of the one he rendered full of toil and peril, the beauty of the other he made the object of universal admiration and of universal contention I. 10.16.

3032. Litotes (λι_τότης plainness, simplicity) is understatement so as to intensify, affirmation expressed by the negative of the contrary. Cp. 2694. Meiōsis (μείωσις lessening) is ordinarily the same as litotes. Thus: “One of the few immortal names That were not born to die”: Halleck.

3033. Metonymy (μετωνυμία_ change of name) is the substitution of one word for another to which it stands in some close relation. Thus: “We wish that infancy may learn the purpose of its creation from maternal lips”: Webster.

μῖσος loathed object, κάθαρμα you scum! συμμαχία_ allies, ἐν Βοιωτοῖς in Boeotia, θέα_τρον spectators, μάχη battlefield, ἵππος cavalry, ἰχθύες fish-market.

3034. Onomatopoeia (ὀνοματοποιία_ making of a name or word) is the formation of names to express natural sounds.

βληχῶμαι bleat, βομβῶ buzz, βρυ_χῶμαι roar, κοάξ quack, κακκαβίζω cackle, κόκκυξ cuckoo, κράζω croak, τι_τίζω cheep, πιππίζω chirp. Sometimes the sound of a whole verse imitates an action; as ““αὖτις ἔπειτα πέδονδε κυλίνδετο λᾶας ἀναιδήςdown again to the plain rolled the shameless stoneλ 598 (of the stone of Sisyphus).

3035. Oxymōron (ὀξύμωρον pointedly or cleverly foolish) is the juxtaposition of words apparently contradictory of each other.

““νόμος ἄνομοςa law that is no lawA. Ag. 1142, ““ἄχαρις χάριςa graceless graceA. Pr. 545, ““πίστις ἀπιστοτάτηmost faithless faithAnd. 1.67, ““αὐτοὶ φεύγοντας φεύγουσιthey themselves are flying from those who flyT. 7.70.

3036. Paraleipsis (παράλειψις passing over) is pretended omission for rhetorical effect.

τὰ_ς δ᾽ ἐπ᾽ Ἰλλυρίους καὶ Παίονας αὐτοῦ καὶ πρὸς Ἀρύββα_ν καὶ ὅποι τις ἂν εἴποι παραλείπω στρατεία_ς I omit his expeditions to Illyria and Paeonia and against Arybbas and many others that one might mention (lit. whithersoever one might speak of) D. 1.13.

3037. Parechēsis (παρήχησις likeness of sound) is the repetition of the same sound in words in close or immediate succession. Alliteration is initial rhyme.

ἄγαμος, ἄτεκνος, ἄπολις, ἄφιλος E. I. T. 220 (cp. “unwept, unhonoured, and unsung”), πόνος πόνῳ πόνον φέρει toil upon toil brings only toil S. Aj. 866, τυφλὸς ““τά τ᾽ ὦτα τόν τε νοῦν τά τ᾽ ὄμματ᾽ εἶblind art thou in thy ears, thy reason, and thy eyesS. O. T. 371, ““οἱ οὐδὲ . . . δὶς ἀποθανόντες δίκην δοῦναι δύναιντ᾽ ἄνwho would not be able to give satisfaction even by dying twiceL. 12.37, ἔσωσά σ᾽: ὡς ἴσα_σιν Ἑλλήνων ὅσοι κτλ. I saved thee; as all of the Greeks know who, etc. E. Med. 476, θανάτου θᾶττον θεῖ wickedness ‘fleeth faster than fateP. A. 39a.

3038. Parisōsis (παρίσωσις almost equal) is approximate equality of clauses as measured by syllables. Parisōsis is sometimes regarded as synonymous with isocōlon.

3039. Paromoiōsis (παρομοίωσις assimilation) is parallelism of sound between the words of two clauses either approximately or exactly equal in size. This similarity in sound may appear at the beginning, at the end (homoioteleuton), in the interior, or it may pervade the whole.

““μαχομένους μὲν κρείττους εἶναι τῶν πολεμίων, ψηφιζομένους δὲ ἥττους τῶν ἐχθρῶνby fighting to be superior to our public enemies, and by voting to be weaker than our private enemiesL. 12.79.

3040. Paronomasia (παρονομασία_) is play upon words.

““οὐ γὰρ τὸν τρόπον ἀλλὰ τὸν τόπον μετήλλαξενfor he changed not his disposition but his positionAes. 3.78. Often in etymological word-play; as Πρόθοος θοός B 758, Μέλητος . . . ἐμέλησεν P. A. 26a, Παυσανίου παυσαμένου P. S. 185c, ““εἰς . . . τόπον . . . ἀειδῆ, εἰς Αἵδουto an invisible place, to HadesP. Ph. 80d. Cp. “Old Gaunt indeed, and gaunt in being old”: Shakespeare. Sometimes this figure deals with the same word taken in different senses (homonyms): ἅμα γὰρ ἡμεῖς τε τῆς ἀρχῆς ἀπεστερούμεθα καὶ τοῖς Ἕλλησιν ἀρχὴ τῶν κακῶν ἐγίγνετοno sooner were we deprived of the first place than the first disaster came upon the GreeksI. 4.119.

3041. Periphrasis (περίφρασις circumlocution) is the use of more words than are necessary to express an idea.

““θρέμματα Νείλουnurslings of the Nile = the EgyptiansP. L. 953e, ““οἰδίπου κάρα_OedipusS. O. T. 40 (κάρα_ expresses reverence or affection). The substantive on which another substantive depends often stands for an adjective, as ἲ_ς Τηλεμάχοιο = mighty Telemach (cp. 1014). For various other periphrases, see the Index.

3042. Pleonasm (πλεονασμός excess), or redundancy, is the admission of a word or words which are not necessary to the complete logical expression of the thought. Such words, though logically superfluous, enrich the thought by adding greater definiteness and precision, picturesqueness, vigour and emphasis; and by expressing subtle shadings of feeling otherwise impossible. Cp. “All ye inhabitants of the world, and dwellers on the earth.”

a. Adverbs or adverbial expressions combined: of time, as πάλιν αὖ, αὖθις αὖ πάλιν, πάλιν μετὰ ταῦτα ὕστερον, ἔπειτα μετὰ ταῦτα, διὰ τέλους τὸν πάντα χρόνον; of manner, as κατὰ ταὐτὰ ὡσαύτως, μάτην ἄλλως, εἰς δυνατὸν ὅτι μάλιστα; of infer- ence, as τοιγάρτοι διὰ ταῦτα, ἐκ τούτου . . . διὰ ταῦτα; of verification, as ἀληθῶς τῷ ὄντι; and various other expressions, as ἴσως τάχ᾽ ἄν, λόγῳ εἰπεῖν.

b. Adverb and adjective combined (usually poetical): κεῖτο μέγας μεγαλωστί huge he lay with his huge length II 776.

c. Adjective and verb: ““ὡς δὲ μὴ μακροὺς τείνω λόγουςbut not to speak at lengthE. Hec. 1177.

d. Adjective and substantive in the dative: ““νῆσος μεγάθει μὲν οὐ μεγάληan island not large in sizeHdt. 5.31.

e. Verb with an abstract substantive in the dative or accusative (1516, 1564): ““βασιλεὺς . . . φύσει πεφυ_κέναιto be a true-born kingX. C. 5.1.24.

f. Compound verb or substantives with substantives: ““οἶκον καλῶς οἰκονομεῖνto build a house wellX. M. 4.5.10, ““ τῶν νεογνῶν τέκνων παιδοτροφία_the rearing of young childrenX. O. 7.21. Here the force of the first member of the compound is quiescent.

g. Compound verb and adverb: ““προύγραψα πρῶτονI wrote firstT. 1.23, ““ἀπαγαγὼν δ᾽ ὑ_μᾶς ἄπωθεν ἀπὸ τοῦ κλέμματοςhaving diverted your attention away from the fraudAes. 3.100.

h. Verb and participle (2147 b): τί δὴ λέγοντες διέβαλλον οἱ διαβάλλοντες; in what words then did my calumniators calumniate me? P. A. 19b.

i. Amplification by synonymous doublets (especially common in Demosthenes): ““ἀξιῶ καὶ δέομαιI beg and beseechD. 18.6, ἐναργὲς καὶ σαφές visible and clear 14. 4.

j. Parallelism of positive and negative: ““ὡς ἔχω περὶ τούτων, λέξω πρὸς ὑ_μᾶς καὶ οὐκ ἀποκρύψομαιI will tell you and I will not conceal my opinion on these mattersD. 8.73, ““οὐκ ἄκλητοι, παρακληθέντες δέnot unbidden but invitedT. 6.87.

k. A person and a characteristic or quality connected by καί or τέ; as ““καταδείσαντες τοῦτον καὶ τὸ τούτου θράσοςfearing him and his audacityD. 21.20.

l. A relative clause takes up a preceding expression: καὶ εὐχὴν δέ τινες αὐτοῦ ἐξέφερον ὡς εὔχοιτο κτλ. and some reported also a prayer he made, etc. (lit. how he prayed) X. A. 1.9.11.

m. ‘Polar’ expressions may be placed here. These are opposites placed in pairs so as to intensify such ideas as all, no one, at all times, everywhere, everything possible. Thus, ““καὶ ἐν θεοῖς καὶ ἐν ἀνθρώποιςboth among the gods and among menP. G. 508a, ““οὐδὲν οὔτε μέγα οὔτε μι_κρόνnothing either great or small = absolutely nothingP. A. 19c, ““ἐν γῇ καὶ θαλάττῃon land and seaD. 18.324, ““οὔτε δοῦλος οὔτ᾽ ἐλεύθεροςnor bond nor freeT. 2.78, ““ῥητὰ καὶ ἄρρηταfanda nefandaD. 18.122. For other cases of pleonasm, see the Index.

3043. Polysyndeton (cp. Asyndeton) is the repetition of conjunctions in a series of coördinate words or phrases.

““καὶ τοσούτων καὶ ἑτέρων κακῶν καὶ αἰσχρῶν καὶ πάλαι καὶ νεωστὶ καὶ μι_κρῶν καὶ μεγάλων αἰτίου γεγενημένουwho has shown himself the guilty cause of so many other base and disgraceful acts, both long ago and lately, both small and greatL. 12.78. Cp. D. 4.36.

3044. Praegnans Constructio is a form of brachylogy by which two expressions or clauses are condensed into one.

Here belong, apart from 1659 ff., such cases as εἰς τὸ βαλανεῖον βούλομαι I want to go to the bath Ar. Ran. 1279 (cp. “he will directly to the lords”: Milton, Samson Agon. 1250) and φανερὸς ἦν οἴκαδε παρασκευαζόμενος he was evidently preparing to go home X. A. 7.7.57. In ““παραγγέλλει ἐπὶ τὰ ὅπλαhe ordered them to get under armsX. A. 1.5.13 the command was ἐπὶ τὰ ὅπλα to arms!

3045. Prolēpsis (πρόληψις taking before) in the case of objective predicate adjectives or nouns is the anticipation of the result of the action of a verb. Examples in 1579.

On the prolepsis of the subject of dependent clauses which is put into the main clause, see 2182. So in “Consider the lilies of the field how they grow.” Prolepsis is also used to designate the anticipation of an opponent's arguments and objections. One variety is prodiorthōsis or preparatory apology (P. A. 20e, D. 18.199, 256).

3046. Symploce (συμπλοκή interweaving) is the repetition, in one or more successive clauses, of the first and last words of the preceding clause.

““ἐπὶ σαυτὸν καλεῖς, ἐπὶ τοὺς νόμους καλεῖς, ἐπὶ τὴν δημοκρατία_ν καλεῖςit is against yourself that you are summoning him, it is against the laws that you are summoning him, it is against the democratic constitution that you are summoning himAes. 3.202.

3047. Synecdoche (συνεκδοχή understanding one thing with another) is the use of the part for the whole, or the whole for the part. The name of an animal is often used for that which comes from, or is made from, the animal. Cp. “they sought his blood”; “Belinda smiled, and all the world was gay”: Pope.

δόρυ ship for plank, beam, ἀλώπηξ fox-skin for fox, χελώνη tortoise-shell for tortoise, πορφύρα_ purple dye for purple-fish, ἐλέφα_ς ivory for elephant, μελίσσα honey for bee.

3048. Zeugma (ζεῦγμα junction, band) is a form of brachylogy by which two connected substantives are used jointly with the same verb (or adjective) though this is strictly appropriate to only one of them. Such a verb expresses an idea that may be taken in a wider, as well as in a narrower, sense, and therefore suggests the verb suitable to the other substantive. Cp. “Nor Mars his sword, nor war's quick fire shall burn The living record of your memory.”

““οὔτε φωνὴν οὔτε του μορφὴν βροτῶν ὄψειthou shalt know neither voice nor form of mortal manA. Pr. 21, ἀλλ᾽ πνοαῖσιν βαθυσκαφεῖ κόνει κρύψον νιν no, either give them to the winds or in the deep-dug soil bury them S. El. 435, ἔδουσί τε πἱ_ονα μῆλα οἶνόν τ᾽ ἔξαιτον they eat fat sheep and drink choice wine M 319.

a. Different from zeugma is syllēpsis (σύλληψις taking together), by which the same verb, though governing two different objects, is taken both in its literal and its metaphorical sense; but does not properly change its meaning. Thus, ““χρήματα τελοῦντες τούτοις . . . καὶ χάριταςpaying money and rendering thanks to themP. Cr. 48c.

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    • Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 100
    • Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 198
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    • Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 202
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    • Demosthenes, Olynthiac 2, 26
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    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 158
    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 179
    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 3
    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 324
    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 6
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    • Demosthenes, Against Aphobus, 16
    • Demosthenes, Against Midias, 20
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    • Euripides, Hecuba, 1177
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    • Euripides, Medea, 682
    • Euripides, Medea, 324
    • Euripides, Medea, 476
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    • Herodotus, Histories, 1.137
    • Herodotus, Histories, 5.31
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    • Homer, Odyssey, 5.264
    • Homer, Odyssey, 14.197
    • Isocrates, Panathenaicus, 103
    • Isocrates, Panegyricus, 119
    • Isocrates, Helen, 16
    • Isocrates, Panegyricus, 122
    • Lysias, Against Eratosthenes, 21
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    • Plato, Apology, 28e
    • Plato, Apology, 38b
    • Plato, Crito, 48c
    • Plato, Phaedo, 80a
    • Plato, Phaedo, 80d
    • Plato, Apology, 19b
    • Plato, Apology, 19c
    • Plato, Apology, 25d
    • Plato, Apology, 26a
    • Plato, Apology, 36b
    • Plato, Apology, 39a
    • Plato, Phaedo, 104d
    • Plato, Theaetetus, 169c
    • Plato, Philebus, 20d
    • Plato, Symposium, 185c
    • Plato, Gorgias, 508a
    • Plato, Meno, 71d
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    • Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 40
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    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 4.3.19
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 1.3.9
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    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 7.3.7
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 4.5.10
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    • Xenophon, Economics, 7.21
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.23
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.11
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.93
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.87
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