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1872. Participle (not in indirect discourse).—The participle, as a verbal adjective, is timeless. The tenses of the participle express only continuance, simple occurrence, and completion with permanent result. Whether the action expressed by the participle is antecedent, coincident, or subsequent to that of the leading verb (in any tense) depends on the context. The future participle has a temporal force only because its voluntative force points to the future.

a. Present (continuative). The action set forth by the present participle is generally coincident (rarely antecedent or subsequent) to that of the leading verb: ““ἐργαζόμεναι μὲν ἠρίστων, ἐργασάμεναι δὲ ἐδείπνουνthe women took their noonday meal while they continued their work, but took their supper when they had stopped workX. M. 2.7.12.

1. Antecedent action ( = imperf.): ““οἱ Κύ_ρειοι πρόσθεν σὺν ἡμῖν ταττόμενοι νῦν ἀφεστήκα_σινthe forces of Cyrus that were formerly marshalled with us have now desertedX. A. 3.2.17, ““τοὺς τότε παρόντας αἰτιά_σονται συμβούλουςthey will accuse those who were their counsellors at that timeP. G. 519a, οἱ Κορίνθιοι μέχρι τούτου προθύ_μως πρά_σσοντες ἀνεῖσαν τῆς φιλονεικία_ς the Corinthians, who up to that time had been acting zealously, now slackened in their vehemence T. 5.32. An adverb (πρότερον, πρόσθεν, τότε, ποτέ) often accompanies the participle, which is sometimes called the participle of the imperfect.

2. Subsequent action (especially when the leading verb denotes motion): ἔπεμψαν πρέσβεις ἀγγέλλοντας τὴν τοῦ Πλημυρίου λῆψιν they despatched messengers to announce the capture of Plemyrium T. 7.25. An attributive present part. w. νῦν may refer to the absolute present, though the main verb is past: ““τὴν νῦν Βοιωτία_ν καλουμένην ᾤκησανthey settled in the country now called BoeotiaT. 1.12.

3. The present participle denotes that an action is in process, is attempted, or is repeated.

b. Future (chiefly voluntative): ““οὐ συνήλθομεν ὡς βασιλεῖ πολεμήσοντεςwe have not come together for the purpose of waging war with the kingX. A. 2.3.21.

c. Aorist (simple occurrence). The action set forth by the aorist participle is generally antecedent to that of the leading verb; but it is sometimes coincident or nearly so, when it defines, or is identical with, that of the leading verb, and the subordinate action is only a modification of the main action.

1. Antecedent: ““δειπνήσα_ς ἐχώρειafter supper he advancedT. 3.112, τοὺς ἐλευθέρους ἀποκτείναντες ἀνεχώρησαν after killing the free men they withdrew 5. 83. ““ἐπομόσα_ς ἔφηhe took an oath and saidX. C. 4.1.23, ““ἤδη δ᾽ ἐπὶ ταῦτα πορεύσομαι τοσοῦτον αὐτὸν ἐρωτήσα_ςI shall at once proceed to this matter after having put to him certain questionsD. 18.124. The aorist participle is often thus used when it takes up the preceding verb: ““νῦν μὲν δειπνεῖτε: δειπνήσαντες δὲ ἀπελαύνετεtake your supper now, and when you have done so, departX. C. 3.1.37.

2. Coincident: ““μή τι ἐξαμάρτητε ἐμοῦ καταψηφισάμενοιdo not commit the error of condemning meP. A. 30d, ““εὖ γ᾽ ἐποίησας ἀναμνήσα_ς μεyou did well in reminding meP. Ph. 60c ( = ἀνέμνησάς με εὖ ποιῶν). So also when an aorist participle is used with a future finite verb, as ““ἀπαλλαχθήσομαι βίου θανοῦσαby dying I shall be delivered from lifeE. Hipp. 356. See also 2103.

3. The action of an attributive aorist participle is rarely subsequent to that of the leading verb. When this is the case, the action of the participle is marked as past from the point of view of the present (like the aor. indic.): ““οἱ Ἕλληνες ὕστερον κληθέντες οὐδὲν πρὸ τῶν Τρωϊκῶν ἁθρόοι ἔπρα_ξανthe people later called Hellenes carried out no joint enterprise prior to the Trojan warT. 1.3, Σάτυρος καὶ Χρέμων, οἱ τῶν τριά_κοντα γενόμενοι, Κλεοφῶντος κατηγόρουν Satyrus and Chremon, who (afterwards) became members of the Thirty, accused Cleophon L. 30.12; cp. γενόμενος T. 2.49, 4. 81.

4. The aorist participle is often ingressive or complexive (1924, 1927).

d. Perfect (completion with permanent result): καταλαμβάνουσι Βρα_σίδα_ν ἐπεληλυθότα they found (historical present) that Brasidas had arrived T. 3.69. A perfect participle may have the force of a pluperfect if accompanied by an adverb like πρόσθεν (cp. 1872 a. 1): ““ πρόσθε κεκτημένοςhe who possessed it beforeS. Ph. 778.

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  • Cross-references to this page (1):
    • Raphael Kühner, Bernhard Gerth, Ausführliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache, KG 1.pos=2.2
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