previous next

Ripe Archaic (2) The Mainland

Bathykles conveniently returns us to the mainland:

Almost no signed works are known outside Attica, though Peloponnesian (but not Boeotian) sculpture did catch Pausanias' eye, and receives scattered comments from others. For Athens, this situation is all but reversed. As already indicated, by far the fullest crop of names comes from here: 24 in all, including foreigners like Aristion and Archermos, though only a few can be connected with extant sculpture, and fewer still attracted notice from later writers. As usual, too, some of the most striking personalities that emerge from the monuments themselves, like the Rampin master (Athens, Acropolis 590 and Louvre MA 3104, the Rampin Rider; Stewart 1990, 120, figs. 125, 127-28) remain completely anonymous. Of those whose names we know, Endoios and Antenor (the only two attested by both signatures and texts) will receive further attention below.

Gitiadas of Sparta


Pausanias is our only authority here:

“The builder [of the Brazen House at Sparta] was Gitiadas, a local man, who also composed Dorian lyrics, including a hymn to the goddess [Athena]. On the bronze are wrought in relief many of Herakles' Labors, and many of his voluntary exploits, together with the rape of the daughter of Leukippos and other achievements of the sons of Tyndareus. There is also Hephaistos releasing his mother from her fetters ... There too are the Nymphs giving gifts to Perseus as he sets out against Medusa in Libya, a cap and the shoes that would bear him through the sky. Also wrought there are the birth of Athena, and Amphitrite and Poseidon too — the largest figures and in my opinion the best worth seeing.

Elsewhere (T 86 and Paus. 4.14.2) Pausanias connects Gitiadas with the first Messenian war (supposedly ca. 736-716) and the late sixth century sculptor Kallon of Aegina (variant chronology, T 1, but cf. T 13 and Raubitschek 1949, 90 no. 85, 508-9). In fact, the remains of the Brazen House are datable to ca. 550. The cult image, a columnar statue brandishing spear and shield, is depicted on Roman coins, while the reliefs were embossed and nailed to the wall. Archaic Laconian shield-bands use the same technique and many of the same themes, but in miniature: Kunze 1950, passim.

Select bibliography: Overbeck 1868/1959 nos. 357-59; Imhoof-Blumer 1887/1964, 58-59; RE 7: 1371-72 (Robert, 1912); ThB 14: 201-202 (Amelung, 1921); Picard 1935-1971 (vol. 1): (Picard/Manuel) 461-62; Lacroix 1949, 217-20; Lippold 1950, 52; EAA 3: 915-16 (Pesce, 1950); Ridgway 1970, 88; Borbein 1973, 200-202 (tripod supports); M. Robertson 1975, 145-46; Boardman 1978a, 76, 81; Romano 1980, 128-35; Pollitt 1990, 26; Stewart 1990, 127, 247, 272.

Hageladas of Argos


Before Hageladas, the only known Argive sculptor is [Aga]medes, who signed the twins at Delphi ca. 580 (Delphi, Kleobis and Biton; Stewart 1990, figs. 56-57). Hageladas himself is dated to 432-29 by Pliny, but see commentary on T 1. More helpful is Pausanias' mention of his bronzes of victors in the Olympics of 520 and 516 (1, 2 below: Paus. 6.10.6, Paus. 6.14.11), and of another killed at Athens in 507 (3 below, cf. 6.8.6 and Hdt. 5.72). His known works, probably all bronzes, are:

  • The runner Anochos of Tarentum, at Olympia
  • Kleosthenes of Epidamnos, in his chariot, at Olympia
  • The pankratiast Timasitheos of Delphi, at Olympia
  • Zeus Ithomatas, on Mt. Ithome in Messenia
  • Zeus and Herakles as children, at Aigion.
  • Herakles Alexikakos ("Averter of Evil") at Athens
  • A Muse, with two others by Kanachos and Aristokles (see below)
  • Captive Messapian women and horses, dedicated by the Tarentines at Delphi; in bronze:

“The bronze horses and captive women were offered by the Tarentines from spoils taken from the Messapians, barbarian neighbors of the Tarentines, and are works of Hageladas of Argos.

The two statues of Zeus may be those reproduced on later Messenian and Achaean coins, which strongly recall the Zeus of Ugento (Stewart 1990, figs. 184-85), while the Herakles was apparently rededicated during the plague of 430-427; for the Tarentine monument, dedicated before 473, see esp. G. Schalles 1981 and Beschi 1982; for its location, Stewart 1990, fig. 186. Hageladas was obviously a vigorous and versatile sculptor, and through his sons and pupils (among whom a late — and untrustworthy — source numbers Pheidias) was clearly the founder of the Argive school of bronzeworking, which reached its acme with Polykleitos (T 62-71) and continued to flourish, in association with Sikyon, through the fourth century.

Select bibliography: Overbeck 1868/1959 nos. 389-99, 419, 422, 533, 622, 929, 1016; Löwy 1885/1976 no. 30; Imhoof-Blumer 1887/1964, 67-68, 84-85; Stuart-Jones 1895/1966, 33-35; RE 7: 2189-99 (Pfuhl, 1912); ThB 15: 454-57 (Amelung, 1922); Lacroix 1949, 227-32; Lippold 1950, 88-89; Moretti 1957, nos. 130-31, 140, 141, 146; EAA 3: 1085-86 (Orlandini, 1960); Ridgway 1970, 88; M. Robertson 1975, 197, 339; Woodford 1976; Boardman 1978a, 89; G. Schalles 1981; Beschi 1982; Gallet de Santerre 1983, 198-99; Pollitt 1990, 32-33; Stewart 1990, 48, 53, 138, 237-38, 247, 252, 256, 257.

Kanachos and Aristokles of Sikyon



Kanachos and his shadowy brother Aristokles are dated only by their collaboration with Hageladas (above, work no. 7), and the removal of Kanachos' bronze Apollo Philesios from Didyma, either by Darius in 494 (cf. Hdt. 6.19) or, less likely, by Xerxes (so Paus. 1.16.3, Paus. 7.46.3). Their floruit should therefore lie around 500. Aside from their Muses and Kanachos' chryselephantine Aphrodite for Sikyon, we hear only of the Apollo and its wooden replica — or archetype — at Thebes:

“The image [of Ismenian Apollo] is equal in size to that at Branchidai (Didyma) and is exactly like it in form; whoever has seen one of these two images and has learnt who the artist was needs no great skill to discern, when he looks at the other, that it is the work of Kanachos. The only difference is this: that the one at Branchidai is of bronze, the Ismenian of cedar-wood.

“Canachus did the nude Apollo, surnamed Philesius, at Didyma, made of Aeginetan bronze, and with it a stag suspended in its tracks in such a way that a thread can be passed under its feet, with the heel and toe alternately retaining their grip, for a "tooth" on each part is so geared that when one is dislodged by pressure the other in turn springs into place.

Pliny, N.H. 34.75
For copies and comments see Romano 1980, 221-35; Stewart 1990, fig. 167. Kanachos, who also worked in marble (Pliny, N.H. 36.42) is placed first in Cicero's "hardness" scale (T 2), and the two brothers were recognized by Pausanias as founders of the Sikyonian bronzeworking school, linking it to the Argive from its very outset. They also taught sculptors from Aegina and Chios.

Select bibliography: Overbeck 1868/1959 nos. 395, 403-10, 418, 477, 527, 796; Stuart-Jones 1895/1966, 38-40; RE 10.2: 1846-48 (Lippold, 1919); ThB 19: 512-13 (Lippold, 1926); Lippold 1950, 86-87; EAA 4: 308-9 (Carettoni, 1961); Ridgway 1970, 88; M. Robertson 1975, 182, 197; Boardman 1978a, 89; Gallet de Santerre 1983, 248-50; Pollitt 1990, 33-34, 223; Stewart 1990, 126, 127, 138, 202, 237-38, 248, 262, 324.

Endoios of Athens


Endoios' father remains unknown, though Pausanias describes his alleged origins:

“Endoios was an Athenian by birth and a pupil of Daidalos, who even followed Daidalos to Crete when he was exiled for the death of Kalos; he made the seated image of Athena, with an inscription saying that Kallias dedicated it, but Endoios made it. There is also the building called the Erechtheion ...

Yet since the anecdote is clearly a fabrication, the ethnic may be too. As for Kallias' Athena, the dedicator should be Peisistratos' opponent Kallias son of Hipponikos, who lived around 570-520, unless (since the piece evidently survived the sack of 480) Pausanias was looking at a rededication by Kallias II, his grandson and a leading politician of the 460s: M. Robertson 1975, 107. The Athena (Athens, Acropolis 625), found on the slope below the Erechtheion is commonly identified with this statue because of its very weathered state; contra, Bundgaard 1974, 16: "The conclusion seems unwarranted. Kore 671, found built into the North citadel wall, was heavily weathered on the right side which...was turned inside the wall. In this case the weathering had obviously taken place before the wall was built. On the other hand, if the figure comes from the [destruction debris] in the corner, which seems likely, it may very well have lain exposed in the breach for a long time before tumbling down."

The Athena being problematic, more recent studies have preferred to start with Raubitschek's restoration of the signature on the potter relief, Athens, Acropolis 1332, as Ἐν[δοιος εποιεσ]εν (Raubitschek 1949, no. 70; cf. Stewart 1990, fig. 161), and Jeffery's independent observation that the stylistically-related Ballplayer base Athens, NM 3476 (Stewart 1990, figs. 138-40) was possibly one of a trio including a base originally bearing a painted scene and signed "and Endoios made this too" (Jeffery 1962, 127); yet if so, the third base, carved with hoplites and hockey-players, is by a different hand — an apprentice? Also a school-piece, if one accepts the Athena, is the little kore Athens, Acropolis 602, stylistically dependent upon it and thus often connected to the second of Endoios' Akropolis signatures, on a column co-signed by (his pupil?) Philergos (not "Philermos", as Raubitschek 1949, no. 7: cf. AM 84 [1969]: pl. 6).

These pieces, with the addition of the Rayet head (with possible body-fragments, AM 84 [1969]: pls. 29-37), a little bronze jumper from the Akropolis, and the Athena from the Gigantomachy pediment, are now generally accepted as constituting the core of Endoios' oeuvre and immediate following (Stewart 1990, figs. 136-37, 205-06; cf. e.g. Deyhle 1969, 12-27; M. Robertson 1975, 106-8; Boardman 1978a, 82-83). They date between ca. 530 and 500.

The seated Athena is the only link — and a weak one — between this group and the texts, which naturally concentrate upon the all-important genre of cult images, listing the following statues:

  • Artemis at Ephesos; wood (type disputed)
  • "Old" Athena; olivewood
  • Seated Athena: same as that of Kallias?
  • Colossal Athena Polias at Erythrai (Ionia); wood
  • Graces and Seasons, in the forecourt of the temple at Erythrai; white stone
  • Athena Alea at Tegea, taken to Rome by Augustus; ivory
Of these, (6) may be echoed in Tegean small bronzes: BCH 99 (1975): 348-9, figs. 16-19; Rolley 1983/1986, 120 fig. 95; Stewart 1990, fig. 182. (1)-(3) are all listed by the same source:

“Endoios, a pupil of Daidalos, made the Artemis in Ephesos, the ancient olivewood statue of Athena ... and the seated Athena.

Athenagoras, Embassy for the Christians 17.3
[T 30]: see T 113 below, under Skopas.

On Mucianus' authority, Pliny also attributes the Ephesian Artemis (1) to Endoios (N.H. 16.213-15): cf. Stewart 1990, fig. 174. Perhaps the most widely-copied and influential cult-image of antiquity, its material and original form are equally uncertain, though its many "breasts" may be an ancient Anatolian feature. The Ephesian temple was begun by 547/6 and still remained incomplete ca. 500: see Romano 1980, 236-49 for a useful resumé. As for (2) and (3), since Athenagoras (writing in A.D. 177) was an Athenian he is surely referring to statues familiar to him and his readers, namely, the olivewood Athena Polias of the Akropolis and Kallias' dedication. The former's history has been brilliantly pieced together by Kroll 1982, who identifies coin-pictures and shows that Endoios, like Smilis (T 14) was apparently responsible for "humanizing" the original plank-idol with face, arms, and feet.

If one accepts the attributions, Endoios emerges as a strong and innovative personality. He seems to bestride the ripe and late archaic, drawing strength from the mature Attic style of the later sixth century but vigorously pursuing new directions, and heavily influencing the early fifth century.

Select bibliography: Overbeck 1868/1959 nos. 348-53; Imhoof-Blumer 1887/1964, 108; Stuart-Jones 1895/1966, 7-8; RE 5: 2553-55 (Robert, 1905); ThB 10: 521-23 (Amelung, 1914); Picard 1935-1971 (vol. 1): (Picard/Manuel) 638-41; Raubitschek 1949, 491-95; Lippold 1950, 74-5; Herington 1955, 41; EAA 3: 337-39 (Orlandini, 1960); Jeffery 1962, 127-28, 130; Deyhle 1969, 12-27, 59; M. Robertson 1975, 105-9, 142, 157, 226-27; Boardman 1978a, 26, 74, 82-83, 158; Romano 1980, 42-57, 236-49; Kroll 1982; LIMC 2.1: 755-63 (Fleischer, 1984, Artemis); Pollitt 1990, 20; Stewart 1990, 13, 104, 122-23, 126, 128, 132, 153, 167, 184, 240, 248-49.

Antenor, son of Eumares, of Athens


Antenor's father, who made a dedication on the Akropolis ca. 525 (Raubitschek 1949, no. 244) may have been the painter "Eumarus of Athens, the first to distinguish the male from the female sex in painting (!), venturing to render every sort of figure, whose inventions were improved upon by Cimon of Cleonae. He first discovered katagrapha, or three-quarter images...." (Pliny, N.H. 35.56). The latter first appear on vases ca. 510 (cf. Stewart 1990, fig. 142) making "Eumarus" contemporary with Eumares. Antenor's brother [...]andr[os] was also a sculptor: Raubitschek 1949, no. 51.

Antenor's oeuvre reads like a microcosm of Endoios'. The giant kore Athens, Acropolis 681 most probably stood on a high base signed by him and dedicated by the potter Nearchos (Stewart 1990, fig. 154); the Delphi pediments are probably from his workshop (Delphi, Temple of Apollo, East Pediment and Delphi, Temple of Apollo, West Pediment; Stewart 1990, figs. 199-204); and Pausanias names him as author of the bronze Tyrannicides stolen by Xerxes in 480 but returned by Alexander or the Seleukids (T 31). Dörig 1969 plausibly suggests a Roman marble head, stylistically similar to the kore's, as a copy of the Harmodios. The pattern, then, is depressingly familiar: surviving works by leading artists are likely to be minor ones in marble, ignored by the sources and only occasionally certified by signatures, while their attested masterpieces, in more vulnerable media, have vanished; as for replicas, even when complete these never bear the original master's name, so attribution is at best tentative, at worst mere fantasy.

For Antenor's conservative and monumental style, see Stewart 1990, 86-89, 124. It remains only to quote the major sources and to note that if one adheres to the generally-accepted dating of the Tyrannicides to 510/9 (cf. T 32; contra Raubitschek 1949, 481-82; Landwehr 1985, 27-47, preferring the years after 488; but see now Weber 1983), then he becomes an exact contemporary of Endoios.

“Not far away [in the Agora] stand Harmodios and Aristogeiton, who killed Hipparchos [514/13]. Their motive and method of execution of the deed have been told by others. Of the figures some are the works of Kritios, the old ones of Antenor. When Xerxes took Athens after the Athenians had abandoned it [480] he carried the latter off as spoils, but Antiochos [I of Syria, reigned 281-261] later sent them back to the Athenians.

“I rather believe that the very first portrait statues officially erected at Athens were those of the tyrannicides Harmodius and Aristogiton. This happened in the same year that the kings were expelled from Rome [510].

Pliny, N.H. 34.70
And on the Delphi temple:

“When Hippias was tyrant and bitter against the Athenians on account of the death of Hipparchos [514/13], the Alkmeonids (an Athenian family banished by the Peisistratids) tried together with the other Athenian exiles to return by force, but were unsuccessful and suffered greatly in their attempt to free Athens. They then fortified Leipsydrion, north of Paionia, and (using every means to fight the Peisistratids) made a contract with the Amphiktyons to build the temple at Delphi, the one that exists now but was not there then. Being both wealthy and men of reputation, they made the temple more beautiful than its model, for among other things whereas they had agreed to build it of poros limestone, they finished its facade in Parian marble.

“It is said that when the Pythian temple was burned [548], some say by the Peisistratids, the Alkmeonids (driven into exile by the Peisistratids) undertook to rebuild it, and receiving money and gathering their power, they attacked the Peisistratids; when they were victorious [510/09] they rebuilt the temple to the god with greater gratitude, as Philochoros observes, fulfilling their earlier vow to him.

Philochoros, FGH 328 F 115
Select bibliography: Overbeck 1868/1959 nos. 443-47; RE 1: 2354-55 (Robert, 1894); ThB 1: 547-48 (Amelung, 1907); Picard 1935-1971 (vol. 1): (Picard/Manuel) 634-38; Payne 1936, 31-34, 63-65; Schrader 1939 no. 38; Raubitschek 1949, 232 no. 197, 481-83; Lippold 1950, 80-1; EAA 1: 408-09 (Orlandini, 1958); Dörig 1969; Deyhle 1969, 39-46; Kleine 1973, 46-51, 67-77; M. Robertson 1975, 103-4, 130, 162, 176, 183, 185-86, 227; Boardman 1978a, 83, 156; Weber 1983; Gallet de Santerre 1983, 180, 241, 271; Landwehr 1985, 27-47; Pollitt 1990, 41-42; Stewart 1990, 86-89, 124, 249-50, and index, s.v. 'Antenor'.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: