Ἄργος, the territory, not only the city; called κοῖλον because the Argive plain is bounded on W., N. and E. by hills, as on S. by the sea. This epithet had already been given to it, acc. to the schol., in the epic called the “Ἐπίγονοι”, popularly ascribed to Homer (Her. 4.32, who expresses doubt), and was again used by Soph. in his Thamyras (fr. 222). Cp. Strabo 8. 370 “τῆς τε χώρας ῾τηε αργιϝε πλαιν̓ κοίλης οὔσης καὶ ποταμοῖς διαρρεομένης ῾τηε ιναξηυς ανδ τηε εραςîνυς᾿ καὶ ἕλη καὶ λίμνας παρεχομένης”. So Her. 7.129 “τὸ μέσον δὲ τούτων τῶν λεχθέντων ὀρέων ἡ Θεσσαλίη ἐστί, ἐοῦσα κοίλη”: Od. 4.1 “Λακεδαίμονα κοίλην” (the valley of the Eurotas); Polyb. 1. 3. 1 “Κοίλη Συρία” (as lying between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon). The epith. κοῖλον has an epic tone, as suggesting a distinction from the Homeric “Πελασγικὸν Ἄργος” (perh. Thessaly), “Ἀχαϊκὸν” and “Ἴασον Ἄργος” (Peloponnesus).
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