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..*μὴ..; The reading of the MSS., “ χαλκοθώραξ τιν̓ Ἐνυάλιος”, was explained by supposing that “χαλκοθώραξ” meant Ares, as distinguished from Enyalios (so the schol. here). How the second should be corrected, is uncertain. (1) In favour of μή, it may be noted that the interrogative “μή” is often followed, as here, by “τις”, and that its tone of tentative suggestion is just in place. Cp. Od. 9. 405 f. μή τίς σεο μῆλα βροτῶν ἀέκοντος ἐλαύνει; μή τίς σ᾽ αὐτὸν κτείνει δόλῳ ἠὲ βίηφι; O. C. 1502μή τις Διὸς κεραυνός, τις ὀμβρία χάλαζ̓ ἐπιρράξασα;” (2) Another possibility is δή, as=‘then’ (to make a last guess). (3) σοί would be fitting, indeed, but would require us to suppose that the second “” in the MSS. is an inadvertent repetition of the first, not a corruption of some word like itself. (4) εἴ has also been suggested. But the implied construction, “μομφὰν ἔχων, εἴ τιν̓” (“εἶχεν”), would be too harsh. (5) is condemned by the fact that with Sophocles this interrogative “” regularly stands first in its clause; only a vocative sometimes precedes it: see on Ant. 1281.

Ἐνυάλιος is in the Iliad either the War-god (2. 651), seemingly identical with Ares, or an epithet of Ares (17. 211 “Ἄρης δεινὸς ἐνυάλιος”). Like “Ἐνυώ”, the word is of uncertain (possibly Thracian) origin. The mention of this deity has a two-fold fitness here; (1) on account of the reference in 178 to Artemis Agrotera; for, acc. to Pollux 8. 91, the Athenian Polemarch made annual offerings “Ἀρτέμιδἰ Αγροτέρᾳ καὶ τῷ Ἐνυαλίῳ”: (2) because in the island-home of Ajax there was a “ἱερόν” of Enyalios, founded by Solon to commemorate the victory by which Athens wrested Salamis from the Megarians ( Plut. Sol. 9). Further, Enyalios is here supposed to have helped Ajax; whereas Ares usually favoured the Trojans (cp. Il. 20. 38). As to the Attic relationship between the two deities, see Appendix.

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hide References (5 total)
  • Commentary references from this page (5):
    • Homer, Iliad, 20.38
    • Homer, Odyssey, 9.405
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 1281
    • Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus, 1502
    • Plutarch, Solon, 9
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