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‘Ionians’ was the general name of the Greeks in the East (for the whole question of the Ionians cf. especially Busolt, i. 277 seq., and Meyer, F. i. 127 seq.); cf. Persian ‘Yauna’ in the B. I., and ‘Javan’ Gen. x. 2; also vii. 9. 1, and Aesch. Pers. 178Ἰαόνων γῆν οἴχεται πέρσαι θέλων”. It was this stock that first came in contact with Orientals. So ‘Frank’ was used in the East of all Crusaders. As to the origin of the name ‘Ionian’, two views are held:

(1) That it developed in Asia Minor, and was gradually extended to the islands and Attica. ‘The central part of the Aegean formed in language, commerce, and civilization a closely connected whole, whose unity found its clearest expression in the great fair at Delos’ (Meyer, u. s. 133), though its original home was the Asiatic mainland.

(2) That it was brought to Asia from Europe by the most important tribe among the immigrants, which was connected with part of the population of Attica.

This latter in the main is H.'s view (c. 147), and may be accepted for the following reasons (see Note F, p. 450):

(a) The four Ionian tribes are found in Attica (v. 66. 2 n.), and are proved by inscriptions to have existed in Delos and in Teos; as we have inscriptions also as to them in Cyzicus and in Perinthus, we may infer their existence in Miletus and in Samos (Busolt, i. 279).

(b) The festival of the Apaturia is found in Athens and in the Ionic cities of Asia Minor (not in the Orientalized Ephesus and Colophon (147. 2)). But the Athenian cult of Apollo πατρῷος (in spite of Plato, Euthyd. 302 C) is not found in Ionia (Farnell, G. C. iv. 161).

(c) Attica is Ionic very early. Cf. Il. xiii. 685, and Solon (Ἀθ. Πολ. 5) calls it πρεσβυτάτην γαῖαν Ἰαονίας. It was as head of the Ionians that Athens took part in the Amphictyonic Council.

At the same time it is possible that there was a survival of preIonic population in Attica. Ion in the legend comes from abroad (cf. viii. 44. 2), from the later Achaia, originally called Aegialus (Paus. vii. 1. 1; H. vii. 94); Euripides (in the Ion) gives him a native mother, Creusa. For the strife of races in Attic myth cf. 78. 3 n. The peculiar feature in Attica, however, is that the two races amalgamated before history begins.

As to the first view, viz. that ‘Ionian’ rose in Asia Minor, three theories may be briefly mentioned:

(1) Curtius' famous paradox (Die Ionier vor der Ion. Wanderung, 1855) was that the Ionians came into Greece from Asia Minor. This is accepted by Holm (i. c. 7), but it contradicts all tradition; and the fact that the Ionians always were confined to the coast points clearly to their having reached it by sea.

(2) Meyer maintained (u. s. p. 150) that the settlement of Ionia took place in Mycenaean times. But the almost complete absence in Ionia of the ‘stirrup vases’ and of the gems, so characteristic of Mycenaean civilization, is against this (Busolt, i. 277 n.).

(3) Bury (E. H. R. 1900, p. 288 seq.) thinks the name ‘Ionian’ was borrowed by immigrants from a pre-Greek population in Asia Minor; cf. the possible identification of the ‘Yaunna’, allies of the Hittites against Rameses II in the thirteenth century B.C. (App. x. 8), with ‘Ionians’. But there is no sufficient evidence for this view.

καλλίστῳ. Cf. the view in Arist. Pol. vii. 7. 2-3, 1327 b that the Greek race owed to equable climate the fact that it was at once ἔνθυμον and διανοητικόν, a mean between the reckless Northerners and the cowardly Easterns. Hippocrates (de Aer. 12) claims for Asia παντὸς ἰσομοιρίη in natural advantages. The κρῆσις τῶν ὠρέων gives μετριότης; but he goes on to admit that courage and endurance cannot be expected in a region so favoured.

τρόπους τέσσερας. H. is probably more trustworthy in his linguistic remarks here than as to non-Greek tongues; but there are too few early inscriptions for us to be able to refute or to confirm him.

Miletus, with Myus and Priene, lay on or near the Latmian bay.

οὐδέν. Stein thinks H. is exaggerating here, and is preparing the way for his attack on the purity of Ionic blood (cc. 146-7). But the words only mean that the dialectic peculiarities of each group were different; that all spoke Ionic is assumed.

Erythrae lies opposite Chios.

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hide References (4 total)
  • Commentary references from this page (4):
    • Aeschylus, Persians, 178
    • Aristotle, Politics, 7.1327b
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 7.1.1
    • Homer, Iliad, 13.685
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