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The custom seems to have been usual in the East; so Pharaoh Necho appointed Jehoiakim to be king over Judah (2 Kings xxiii. 34), and Nebuchadnezzar, Zedekiah (ib. xxiv. 17).


Inaros, the Libyan king (12.4 and Thuc. i. 104, 109-10), rebelled in 460 B. C.; his rebellion was the cause of the disastrous Athenian expedition (459-454). Ctesias (c. 36, p. 73) tells us that after his surrender his life was spared for five years; but he was then given up to the Persian queen-mother, Amytis, who impaled him in vengeance for his killing her son Achaemenes.

The names of Thannyras and Pausiris have not been found on the monuments, but these seem to show some of the Egyptian royal family as governors. The general control, however, was given to Aryandes (iv. 166).

Amyrtaeus was ruler of Lower Egypt, and took part in the revolt of Inaros; the last certain mention of him is in 449 B. C. (Thuc. i. 112), when he was still holding out in the Marshes (cf. ii. 140); he may be the ‘king of Egypt’ (Plut. Per. 37) who sent corn to Athens 445-444, but Philochorus (fr. 90; F. H. G. i. 399) says this came from Psammetichus, king of Libya, the son of Inaros. The old view, that he is the ‘Amyrtaeus’ of the twenty-eighth dynasty (405-400 B. C., Man. fr. 70; F. H. G. ii. 596) is impossible, not so much because of the length of reign (cf. ii. 140 for a curiously exact parallel), but because this second Amyrtaeus was succeeded by another native dynasty, not by a Persian nominee, as H. here states.


αἷμα ταύρου. This was the fabled cause of the death of Themistocles (cf. Arist. Eq. 83-4 and Plut. Them. 31); the blood was supposed to coagulate and choke the drinker (Arist. Hist. An. iii. 19).

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hide References (5 total)
  • Commentary references from this page (5):
    • Aristophanes, Knights, 83
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.104
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.112
    • Plutarch, Pericles, 37
    • Plutarch, Themistocles, 31
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