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For Kadytis cf. ii. 159 n.

The Palestine Syrians are here distinguished by H. from the Phoenicians (so too in ii. 104); their lands also are distinguished in i. 105 (probably), iii. 91. 1, and iv. 39. 2; in ii. 106. 1 he applies the term to include the coast north of Mount Carmel. But the most important reference is vii. 89, where H. distinguishes the ‘Syrians in Palestine’ from the Phoenicians, and then goes on (§ 2) to use ‘Palestine’ of all the coast land, including Phoenicia, ‘as far as Egypt’. He never uses it of Phoenicia alone. Here he means ‘Philistines’, who were still powerful in his time (Zech. ix. 5); it is true that he says they were circumcised (ii. 104. 3), but he says (ib.) the same of Phoenicians. Either the neighbouring tribes had begun to copy the Jews in this rite, or H. confuses the Jews and the coast peoples. He cannot have meant by the ‘Palestine Syrians’ ‘the Jews’ only, for they were at this time very unimportant.


The ancient geographers did not usually extend ‘Arabia’ to the Mediterranean, nor does H. himself in iv. 39. He means here that the ends of the trade routes from Arabia to the Mediterranean were under Arabian control (cf. iii. 107 seq. for this spice trade); he writes τοῦ Ἀραβίου, ‘in possession of the Arabian,’ not τῆς Ἁραβίης, For the Arabs of South Palestine as dependent allies (not subjects) of the Persians cf. 88. 1 n.

Jenysus must have been a little further from Egypt than the once important port of Rhinocolura (Strabo 781), as Titus marched from Pelusium (a day west of Mount Casius) to Rhinocolura in three days (Joseph. B.J. iv. 11. 5), and H. allows ‘three days’ from Mount Casius to Jenysus. Its name has been traced in ‘Khan Jûnes’, the traditional site of the casting-up of Jonah; but this is too far from Egypt, and its name ‘resting place of Jonah’ obviously dates from Mahometan times.

For Mount Casius and the Serbonian Lake cf. ii. 6. 1 n.


The Egyptians called the Serbonian Lake Τυφῶνος ἐκπνοαί (Plut. Ant. c. 3), and Strabo (763) describes it ὡς ἂν ζέοντος ὕδατος, and says ἀναφυσᾶται κατὰ καιροὺς ἀτάκτους. Typhon, the hundred-headed (Τυφὼς Κίλιξ ἑκατόγκρανος, Pind. Pyth. viii. 16) son of Tartarus and Gaia, was placed by Homer, Il. ii. 783εἰν Ἀρίμοις”—probably in Cilicia. Afterwards his burial place was transferred to Etna (Pind. Ol. iv. 11), and to other volcanic regions. When he was identified with the Egyptian Set (ii. 144. 2 n.), it was also placed in Egypt.

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