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Ἐμήκυνα. H., apart from his interest in Samos (cf. Introd. p. 3), made it his object to describe great works everywhere (cf. i. 93. 1). For Samos generally cf. V. Guérin, Patmos et Samos, 1856.

ὄρυγμα. The object of the ‘tunnel’ was to bring the water from the other (i. e. the north) side of Mount Ampelus; the ‘channel’ in it (ἄλλο ὄρυγμα) is not quite ‘thirty feet’ deep at the outlet, and decreases in depth as it approaches the spring from which it issues; this was to give sufficient fall for the water, but H. had of course only seen the outlet on the south side; as the boring was begun on both sides, the engineering skill required was very considerable. The work is a good instance of the way in which the tyrants ‘courted popularity by providing for the needs of their people’, and may be compared with the contemporary aqueduct of Pisistratus (cf. E. Gardner, Athens, pp. 26-7). The tunnel was discovered in 1882 (cf. Mittheil. des Deutsch. Archaeol. Instit. 1884 (Athen.), pp. 163 f., with two plans, or Tozer's Islands of Aegean, pp. 167 seq.). On the whole the accuracy of H. is strikingly confirmed, though he exaggerates the length of the tunnel, which is really about 1,100 feet.


σωλήνων. Remains of the ‘pipes’ have been found, both leading from the spring to the hill, a distance of some half mile, and in the tunnel itself through the hill.


χῶμα. The mole extended from the western horn of the Old Harbour and more than half closed it. Its remains can still be seen about six feet below the surface. H. is right as to its length, but the sea at present is only ten fathoms deep (Guérin, pp. 203-4).


νηὸς μέγιστος. H. means of Greek temples: those of Egypt were larger. The Heraeum was 346 feet long and 189 broad (Leake, Asia Minor, p. 348, makes it 350, but other estimates are given; Guérin, p. 225), which is larger than any known Greek temple in the East, except that of Ephesus, which was finished later; H. (ii. 148) mentions these two temples as ‘notable’ Greek works. The temples at Acragas and Selinus are about the same size; the Olympieium at Athens was on a larger scale, but remained unfinished till the time of Hadrian. Pausanias (vii. 5. 4) says the Heraeum was ‘burned down’ (κατακαυθῆναι) by the Persians, but that θαῦμα ἦν ὑπὸ τοῦ πυρὸς λελυμασμένον.

For Rhoecus cf. Murray, G. S. i. 74 seq.; he was connected with Theodoros (i. 51. 3 n.). His name has been found on a sixth-century vase at Naucratis. He probably began the temple half a century before, and it was finished under Polycrates. For these ἔργα Πολυκράτεια cf. Arist. Pol. 1313 b 24 who says they were intended to produce ἀσχολία καὶ πενία τῶν ἀρχομένων; he does not mention the desire to provide wages for the poorer classes, though no doubt this motive was present with ancient (cf. Pl. Per. 12) as well as with modern despots. Aristotle compares them with the Pyramids and with the buildings of the Cypselidae and the Pisistratidae. The building policy of tyrants from the days of Cypselus to Napoleon III's ‘Haussmannization’ of Paris is a commonplace of history. The Samian Alexis says (F. H. G. iv. 299) that Polycrates also developed the agricultural wealth of his island. For his commercial and industrial activity cf. Ure in J. H. S. xxvi. pp. 132-3.

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