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Κύρου τε . . . Καμβύσεω. Stein takes this to mean that there had been a general rising against Cambyses. (Xen. Cyr. viii. 8. 2 definitely states this.) If this be right it explains the postponement of his Egyptian expedition till his fifth year. But probably H. only refers to the reduction of Phoenicia and Cyprus (19. 3 n.).

The ‘Arabians’ serve in the Persian army (vii. 69), where they are coupled with the Ethiopians of Africa, and are included in the official lists of provinces (cf. App. VII. 1) next to Egypt. Hence Rawlinson (on ii. 8) is probably right in putting these Arabians between the Nile and the Red Sea. H.'s statement here as to Arab independence (cf. iii. 7 seq.) refers to a different set of tribes, i. e. the nomads to the south and east of Palestine. The Persians, wiser than the Assyrians, did not attempt to conquer the wild tribes of the desert, but made friends with them. The Arabs had pressed north, as early as the fifth century, into the regions desolated by the Assyrian raids. (Meyer, iii. 86 seq.) They controlled the spice trade (c. 107); hence they give the Great King yearly 1,000 talents of frankincense.


For Artystone cf. vii. 69. 2.


ἱππεύς. Neither at Behistun nor on his tomb at Nakhsh-IRustam is Darius represented on horseback. (For illustrations of these monuments cf. Maspero, iii. 681-3, 736-7.) But H. may well have seen some equestrian ‘relief’, now destroyed, resembling the façade of Tagh-I-Bostan (Perrot, v. 534).

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    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 8.8.2
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