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In vii. 77. 1 the Καβηλέες are identified with the Lasonians; H. reproduces two sources without troubling to reconcile them. For the Καβάλιοι cf. Ramsay, C. and B. pp. 265-6; they lay on the borders of Lycia and the Roman province of Asia; their important town, Cibyra, Strabo (631) says was founded by Lydians (hence they are called οἱ Μηίονες in vii. 77. 1). For the Milyans cf. i. 173. 2 n.

The Hytennians were perhaps the only Pisidian highlanders subject to Persia; for the independence of these mountaineers cf. Xen. Anab. i. 1. 11; the Ἐτεννεῖς in the third century B. C. were able to raise 8,000 hoplites (Polyb. v. 73). Cf. v. 25 n. for the two first satrapies as always united under one ruler. The second satrapy was officially called Sparda (= Sardis) from the name of its capital; cf. c. 120.

The Hellespontines are the Greeks of North-west Asia Minor.

For the Thracians cf. vii. 75 n., where they are called ‘Bithynians’, and the story of their immigration is given; the Mariandynians were well known to the Greeks from their neighbourhood to the colony of Heraclea (Xen. Anab. vi. 2. 1).

For the Syrians (= the Cappadocians) cf. i. 72 n. The name is one of several proofs that H. did not borrow this list from Hecataeus, as some have suggested: Hec. (fr. 194; F. H. G. i. 13) calls this people Λευκόσυροι (contrast too his Τίβαροι (fr. 193) with Τιβαρηνοί in iii. 94). Darius gives the native name ‘Katapatuka’ in his list of conquests. The official name of the third satrapy was Dascylitis (Thuc. i. 129. 1).

The third satrapy was hereditary in the house of Pharnaces, who was descended from one of the ‘Seven’ (cf. 84. n.).

H. here uses Cilicia in the wide sense, as including not only (1) the strip of coast, but also (2) the Taurus region to the north as far as, and even beyond, the Halys (i. 72. 2), and (3) the country to the north-east (the later Commagene) as far as the Euphrates (v. 52. 3). Hence the tribute of this satrapy was a heavy one, 500 talents (v. 49. 6). As, however, 140 talents was spent in the province, it is only reckoned as 360 talents in the total (c. 95). Cilicia was held by native rulers who all bore the Semitic name Συέννεσις (cf. i. 74. 3; v. 118. 2; vii. 98. 1); perhaps this was a title (cf. ‘Pharaoh’). Their dependence on the central power varied according to its strength or weakness.

The ‘white horses’ were sacred to the sun-god Mithra (for their sacrifice cf. vii. 113. 2 n.); hence one is paid for each of the 360 days in the year. They were also sacred to Ormazd (vii. 40). Strabo (525) says there was a similar tribute of horses, besides other cattle, from Cappadocia and from Media (1,500 and ‘about 3,000’ horses respectively).

For the tribute in kind cf. i. 192 n. and App. VI. 8.

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