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Posideium lay south of the Orontes, on the slopes of the Syrian Mount Casius, which originally formed the southern boundary of Cilicia; in later times this lay further north, at the Syrian gates. Amphilochus was supposed to have led eastwards some of the Greeks from Troy; he settled them in Pamphylia (vii. 91, a passage which supplements this).

For the independence of the Arabians cf. c. 8; they, however, brought annual gifts (97. 5). For Συρίη Παλαιστίνη cf. 5. 1 n.

The fifth satrapy was called by the Persians ‘beyond the river’ (Ezra v. 6; vi. 6); it, however, included, at any rate later, a district east of the Euphrates (Arr. Anab. iii. 8. 6).


Βάρκης. For the conquest of Barca by Aryandes, the satrap of Egypt, cf. iv. 201; for Lake Moeris ii. 149 n.; the revenue from it was 240 talents a year. The whole passage (cf. App. IX. 1) implies that the Persians were masters of Egypt when it was written. For the ‘White Fort’ cf. 13. 2 and Thuc. i. 104. 2.


ἐπιμετρεομένου: i.e. ‘120,000’ (medimni) ‘in addition to’ (ἐπί) the tribute.


νομὸς ἕβδομος. H. so far has arranged his satrapies geographically; he continues to do so from the 8th to the 12th (or perhaps the 13th); but his 7th satrapy is in the extreme north-east of the empire, southeast of the Paraphamisus (hold. Hindoo-Koosh) Mountains. H. had little or no idea of the arrangement of the eastern half of the Persian empire. He joins the Gandarians and Dadicae in vii. 66, where he says they were equipped like the Bactrians. The Gandarii are called by Hecataeus (fr. 178; F. H. G. i. 12) an ‘Indian tribe’; Strabo (697) puts Gandaritis in the valley of the Cabul; they and the Sattagydi (‘Thatagush’) come in the first list of provinces (B. I. i. 6), where they are followed by Arachosia. Hence Meyer, iii. p. 97, puts them down as conquests of Cyrus. It is possible that their earlier conquest may explain their curious place in the list, especially as none of them joined in the general revolt against Darius. The Aparyti are otherwise unknown, but Holdich (Gates of India, pp. 28, 31) puts all these tribes in the Indus valley, and identifies the Aparytae with the modern Afridi.

Σούσων. H. now starts from the head of the Persian Gulf, and gives the 8th, 9th, 10th, and 11th satrapies in order from south to north. The official name of the Cissian satrapy was Susiana; it corresponded to the ancient ‘Elam’.

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