τὸν αὐτὸν . . . χρόνον. There is no good reason to doubt the synchronism, though most modern critics think it artificial. Duncker (vi. 266, 271) uses it to explain the absence of the Phoenician fleet in Scythia. The exact date, however, does not interest H., and cannot be fixed; it must be earlier than the suppression of Aryandes' revolt (cf. 166. 2 n.). H. gives the πρόφασις in c. 167, where he states the expedition was intended ‘to conquer Libyans’ (i. e. the Eastern ones); this motive is probably the real one, though H.'s own narrative (c. 203) does not agree with it, and the plan failed (cf. 197. 1). τάδε. The account of the colonization of Thera and Cyrene. H. seems deliberately to introduce this digression, in order to illustrate this important feature in Greek life. Whether the facts are true or not, they represent fifth-century thought as to colonization.
- I. Its causes:
- II. The stages of colonization:
- (1) The reconnoitring expedition (151. 3; 156. 2).
- (2) The settlement off the coast, Platea.
- (3) The constitutional development (c. 161 ad fin.).
- III. The relations of Greeks and natives (especially
- (1) At first friendly, but with suspicion (158. 2).
- (2) Then frankly hostile (c. 160).
- (3) In spite of this, great admixture.
ἐπιβατέων. In vi. 12. 1 ἐπιβάται is opposed to ἐρέται; but the Argonauts were αὐτερέται (cf. Thuc. i. 10. 4). παίδων παῖδες, ‘descendants’; for the Minyans were driven out in the fifth generation (147. 2 and App. XIV. 2) after Heracles, who was one of the Argonauts. For Pelasgians in Lemnos cf. vi. 137 n. Taygetus occurs again in 148. 2. The subsequent connexion of Euphemus, the ancestor of Battus, with this region (Pind. Pyth. 4. 78-9) makes it possible that there was a prehistoric settlement of non-Dorians here, connected specially with Thera. Euphemus is turned by Studniczka (p. 116) into an euphemistic name of a chthonian god, who lives at the gate of Hades, Taenarum! This is a fine example of the ‘Higher Criticism’. παῖδες. The Argonauts found Lemnos inhabited only by women, who had killed their fathers and husbands (Apollod. i. 9. 17); Hypsipyle had spared her father Thoas (Ov. Her. 6. 135). The later population of Lemnos was the result of their visit. For this story cf. Il. vii. 467-9 (Euneos the Lemnian, a son of Jason).
Τυνδαριδέων. Some see an inconsistency here, because the mass of the Lacedaemonians were Dorians, and the Tyndaridae as Achaeans were alien to them. The story is obviously unhistorical, but the Tyndarid reference is only an anachronistic anticipation of the later Spartan claim to be the heirs of Agamemnon (vii. 159. 1). The legend also aims at emphasizing the connexion between Lacedaemon and Thera. This story of admission to citizenship is interesting as showing none of the exclusiveness which later was so characteristic at Sparta (cf. ix. 35. 1 n.; Arist. Pol. ii. 9. 17, 1270 a). It is probable, on other grounds, that this exclusiveness was late, due to the growth of Lacedaemonian power after 550 B. C.