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στήλας . . . δύο. H. uses ‘Assyrian’ (Ἀσσύρια) for any cuneiform writing (here for Persian), which of course he could not read.

For the custom of putting up a bilingual inscription in the languages of the ruling race and of the subjects concerned cf. the inscriptions on the Red Sea Canal (ii. 158 n.). For the lists of subject races cf. App. VII. 1.

ἐξηριθμήθησαν. The figure 700,000 was a conventional one for the levy en masse of Persia (cf. Isoc. Panath. 49 for the soldiers in Xerxes' army), as is the number ‘600’ for a Persian fleet; cf. vi. 9 (Lade), 95 (Marathon); ‘700,000’ is of course impossible (cf. Munro, J. H. S. xxii. 294 seq. for the whole subject).

στήλῃσι. Ctesias (xvii, p. 68) calls them βωμόν, and attributes the destruction to the Chalcedonians; but H. speaks as an eyewitness.


Artemis Orthia or Orthosia (by some identified with the Tauric Artemis; cf. 103. 1 n.) was worshipped especially at Sparta, where boys, as is well known, were flogged at her altar (discovered in 1906; B. S. A. xii. 331 seq.); perhaps this cruelty was a Spartan peculiarity. The oldest certain mention of her cult is Pind. Ol. 3. 30, but Bergk conjectures Ὀρθία in Alcman P. L. G. iii. 41; for it cf. Paus. iii. 16. 7, and Frazer ad loc., and Farnell C. G. S. ii. 452 seq. The title may be explained with the Schol. to Pind. as ὀρθοῦσα τὰς γυναῖκας, i. e. in travail; others connect it with the stiff straightness of an early ξόανον; but this was not peculiar to Artemis.

ἱροῦ. There was a temple on each side, these being twenty stadia apart (Strabo 319); the Asiatic one (to Zeus Οὔριος) was the more important (cf. Polyb. iv. 39, where there is a most interesting account of the Pontus).

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    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 3.16.7
    • Pindar, Olympian, 3
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