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Ἀρταφρένεα. The MSS. vary here and elsewhere (vi. 94; vii. 74), but this form is confirmed by Aesch. Pers. 21, 776, and C. I. A. i. 64 [Τισ]σαφρένην, and represents the Persian ending -frana (cf. iii. 70 nn.) more correctly than the later form Ἀρταφέρνης. The mutual relations of the Persian officials in Asia Minor are obscure (cf. App. VI; Abbott, H. v, vi, Exc. i). (1) Though Herodotus divides Asia Minor west of the Halys into three satrapies—the Ionic, the Lydian, and the Phrygian (iii. 90, 127), we hear of only two capitals—Sardis (Çparda, cf. iii. 120) and Dascylium, as in Thucydides. Again, Thucydides clearly recognizes only two principal satraps—Pharnabazus and Tissaphernes, Tamos, governor of Ionia, being a mere lieutenant of the latter (Thuc. viii. 31, 87). Similarly, in Herodotus, Oroetes, Satrap of Sardis (iii. 120), resides at Magnesia in the Ionic satrapy (iii. 122), and after slaying the satrap of Dascylium, holds all three satrapies (iii. 126, 127). Further, had he not from the first ruled Ionia, why should he have been taunted with the independence of Samos? (iii. 120). It would seem then that the Ionic satrapy, though distinct for financial purposes, was governed from Sardis. (2) The generals seem at this time to have been quite distinct from the satraps. In the Ionic revolt the three generals are said to have districts (νομοί, v. 102), and divide the revolted towns among themselves (v. 116). Nevertheless Daurises moves from the Hellespont to Caria (v. 117), while Hymaees takes his place on the Hellespont (v. 122), and Otanes joins Artaphrenes in attacking Ionia and Aeolis (v. 123). Thus Otanes (never styled governor) would seem to have been a purely military official (vii. 135), successor to Megabazus in the generalship (v. 26), while Artaphrenes is throughout satrap of Sardis (v. 25) with supreme authority (v. 30), especially in matters of finance (vi. 42). Indeed, it is implied (v. 30, 32) that his authority is superior to that of the general; cf. Meyer, iii. § 43. Lastly, Mardonius (vi. 43) would seem to have had a special commission from the king with fuller powers, as had the younger Cyrus (Xen. Hell. i. 4. 3). δικαστέων. For the king's judges cf. iii. 14. 5, 31. 3 nn.; and for a similar offence, viii. 194. σπαδίξας = ἐκδείρας, ‘after flaying him.’ If so, it repeats ἀπέδειρε, as ἐντανύσας ἐνέτεινε below. Stein suggests ‘after tanning’, σπάδιξ being the bark of the maple. ἐνέτεινε, ‘stretched them to make the seat’; cf. Il. v. 727, and for τόνοι, ix. 118. Flaying was an Assyrian practice (Layard) adopted by the Persians so freely that flaying alive (Diodor. xv. 10; cf. Plut. Art. 17） became known in late times as the Persian punishment.
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