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τῶν παχέων. The men of substance; so of Chalcidian Hippobotae (77. 2), and of oligarchs at Aegina (vi. 91. 1), and at Megara in Sicily (vii. 156. 2); cf. also Aristoph. Pax 639.
For similar unnatural alliances between an oligarchy and a tyrant cf. Hippias and Sparta (cc. 63, 90, and Thuc. ii. 33). The Milesian oligarchy had been friendly to Paros, the rival of Naxos (ch. 29).
ὀκτακισχιλίην. A force of 8000 hoplites, as large as that of Sparta (vii. 234), is rightly regarded by Beloch (B. p. 181) as impossible for a rocky island with no large town, unless it includes the contingents of all the Cyclades dependent on Naxos (31. 2).
ἐπιθαλασσίων. There is some exaggeration, perhaps dramatic, in τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἀσίῃ . . . πάντων, but probably Artaphrenes was supreme in Western Asia Minor (25 n.). The Persian rule only extended to the islands adjacent to the coast, e. g. Samos.
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