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The wars in Ionia and Greece, from the expedition against Naxos to the battle of Marathon, fall within a period of ten years, 499-490 B. C. The chronology which suits H.'s narrative best is Stein's from whom Abbott (Exc. xiii) varies only as to the first years.

499.Spring. Expedition to Naxos. Four months' siege (v. 31-4).
Autumn. Revolt of Aristagoras. Deposition of the tyrants (v. 36-8).
Winter. Aristagoras seeks help at Sparta and Athens (v. 38, 97).
498.Burning of Sardis. Battle of Ephesus (v. 99-102). Defection of Athens (v. 103).
Spread of the revolt to Byzantium, Caria, and Cyprus.
497.Persian successes in Cyprus and Asia Minor (v. 108-123). Flight and death of Aristagoras (v. 124-6; Thuc. iv. 102). Histiaeus comes down from Susa (v. 107, 108, vi. 1).
496.Battle of Lade. Siege of Miletus begins (vi. 6 f.).
495.Second year of the siege.
494.Fall of Miletus (vi. 18 f.). Subjugation of Caria.
493.Death of Histiaeus (vi. 28-30). Reduction of the islands (vi. 31-3). The ordinances of Artaphrenes (vi. 42).
492.Mardonius' expedition and disaster off Mount Athos (vi. 43-5).
491.Subjugation of Thasos. Preparations for another invasion. The sending of the heralds (vi. 46, 48 f.).
490.The expedition of Datis, and the battle of Marathon (vi. 94 f.).

It seems clear that the revolt began with the arrest and deposition of the tyrants, which must therefore be placed in 499 B. C. in the sixth year before the fall of Miletus (494 B. C.; cf. vi. 18). But while the events of the triennium between the fall of Miletus and the battle of Marathon are clearly dated by Herodotus (cf. Macan, App. VI), the chronology of the Ionic revolt is vague, the only fixed point being supplied by Thucydides' statement (iv. 102; cf. ch. 126 n.) that Aristagoras' death took place sixty years before the foundation of Amphipolis. Very possibly Macan is right in cutting down the length of the siege of Miletus to a single year (with E. Curtius) and in allowing a longer period to the revolt in Cyprus and Aeolis. But his scheme (App. V) is rather a correction than an interpretation of Herodotus. Busolt (ii. 548 n. 7) presses into the service of chronology fanciful anecdotes about Darius at Susa, and thus crowds the events above assigned to 498 and 497 into 498, and makes the siege of Miletus last 3 years, 497-4. Munro (C.A.H. iv. 232-3) suspects H.'s curiously explicit chronology of 493-1 B. C. and doubts if any of the events assigned to 491 B. C. are rightly dated. He places Marathon in 491.


Καύκασα must have been a harbour on the south-east coast of Chios (34) near Phanae (Strabo, p. 645; Liv. xxxvi. 43).


τούτῳ τῷ στόλῳ. Naxos was ruined by the next expedition (vi. 96).

θαλαμίης: a port-hole in the lowest row.

διελόντας ... κατὰ τοῦτο, ‘dividing him in this way.’ The body was not really divided, but might be so spoken of, being half within and half without the ship. Stein διέλκοντας.


This story of the treachery of Megabates is very improbable. That a Persian of the blood royal should by treachery ruin a project expressly sanctioned by Darius, and to punish the insolence of a Greek tyrant risk disgrace for himself, is unlikely; that he should remain thereafter in high favour (32 n.), hardly credible. Nor are the Naxians, with the fate of Samos, Chios, Lesbos, and Lemnos before their eyes, likely to have been guileless enough to have no suspicions of the great armada gathered against them.

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