The wars in Ionia and Greece, from the expedition against Naxos to the battle of Marathon, fall within a period of ten years, 499-490 B. C. The chronology which suits H.'s narrative best is Stein's from whom Abbott (Exc. xiii) varies only as to the first years.
|499.||Spring. Expedition to Naxos. Four months' siege (v. 31-4).|
|Autumn. Revolt of Aristagoras. Deposition of the tyrants (v. 36-8).|
|Winter. Aristagoras seeks help at Sparta and Athens (v. 38, 97).|
|498.||Burning of Sardis. Battle of Ephesus (v. 99-102). Defection of Athens (v. 103).|
|Spread of the revolt to Byzantium, Caria, and Cyprus.|
|497.||Persian successes in Cyprus and Asia Minor (v. 108-123). Flight and death of Aristagoras (v. 124-6; Thuc. iv. 102). Histiaeus comes down from Susa (v. 107, 108, vi. 1).|
|496.||Battle of Lade. Siege of Miletus begins (vi. 6 f.).|
|495.||Second year of the siege.|
|494.||Fall of Miletus (vi. 18 f.). Subjugation of Caria.|
|493.||Death of Histiaeus (vi. 28-30). Reduction of the islands (vi. 31-3). The ordinances of Artaphrenes (vi. 42).|
|492.||Mardonius' expedition and disaster off Mount Athos (vi. 43-5).|
|491.||Subjugation of Thasos. Preparations for another invasion. The sending of the heralds (vi. 46, 48 f.).|
|490.||The expedition of Datis, and the battle of Marathon (vi. 94 f.).|
Καύκασα must have been a harbour on the south-east coast of Chios (34) near Phanae (Strabo, p. 645; Liv. xxxvi. 43).
τούτῳ τῷ στόλῳ. Naxos was ruined by the next expedition (vi. 96). θαλαμίης: a port-hole in the lowest row. διελόντας ... κατὰ τοῦτο, ‘dividing him in this way.’ The body was not really divided, but might be so spoken of, being half within and half without the ship. Stein διέλκοντας.
This story of the treachery of Megabates is very improbable. That a Persian of the blood royal should by treachery ruin a project expressly sanctioned by Darius, and to punish the insolence of a Greek tyrant risk disgrace for himself, is unlikely; that he should remain thereafter in high favour (32 n.), hardly credible. Nor are the Naxians, with the fate of Samos, Chios, Lesbos, and Lemnos before their eyes, likely to have been guileless enough to have no suspicions of the great armada gathered against them.