previous next


Since ὀφείλω is used like ‘owing’ of evil as well as good (Plat. Rep. 332 B, 335 E) προοφειλομένη ἔχθρη is a ‘hatred one has long had cause to feel, but has not satisfied.’ So vi. 59 π. φόρος, ‘tribute still in arrear’; Thuc. i. 32εὐεργεσία π.” ‘a kindness not yet repaid.’

ἐχρέωντο. For the consultation of the oracle on similar occasions cf. i. 167; iv. 151.

Δαμίης καὶ Αὐξησίης. These deities were also worshipped at Troezen and Epidaurus, and in Laconia. Αὐξησίη is clearly connected with ‘Increase’ (αὔξειν, cf. the Attic deity Αὐξώ), but the derivation of Δαμίη remains a problem. Most probably it may be connected with Mother-Earth, Δημήτηρ, since at Rome and in Italy the Bona Dea, an earth-goddess, worshipped exclusively by women (Ovid, Fast. v. 150 f.), was called Damia, her victim damium, and her priestess damiatrix. These names must be of Greek origin, and seem to show that the Greek deity Damia migrated from Tarentum, where the feast of Dameia was celebrated, to Rome, and was there engrafted on the Italian Bona Dea = Fauna (Warde Fowler, Roman Festivals, pp. 102-6). In any case it can hardly be doubtful that these goddesses are concerned with the increase of the fruits of the earth, and with child-birth in women. Their worship resembled that of Demeter and Persephone in the raillery practised at both by the women (ch. 83. 3 n.), in the throwing of stones as a religious rite, and in the manner of sacrifice (Paus. ii. 30. 4, 32. 2). In the fact that the statues were made of wood we may perhaps see a relic of the supposed fertilizing power of trees (cf. the May-pole). For parallel spring customs in many lands and their explanation cf. Frazer, Paus. ii. 492; iii. 266 f.


ἱρωτάτας. The μορίαι at Athens were held sacred and protected by law (Lysias, περὶ σηκοῦ, 2, 7, &c.). The first olive, still to be seen in the days of H. in the Erechtheum (viii. 55 n.), was the gift of Athena to Attica; hence the view that olives were once found in Attica only. The image of Athena Polias in the Erechtheum was made of olive-wood (Athenagoras, Leg. 17); indeed, primitive statues were generally made of wood (Paus. viii. 17. 2).


ἀπάξουσι. The Athenians later required cleruchs and allies at Brea, Erythrae, and elsewhere to pay such contributions to the Panathenaea (Hicks 32, 41, 64).

Ἀθηναίῃ τῇ Πολιάδι. It seems clear that in inscriptions ‘Athena Polias’ may refer to the goddess of the Parthenon as well as to her of the Erechtheum, the title serving to distinguish the goddess who watches over the city and citadel of Athens from Athena Nike (Wyse, Cl. Rev. xii. 145-52; cf. also D'Ooge, Acropolis, 139-42, 385-9). But in literature Athena Polias naturally means the goddess of the Erechtheum, and here that meaning is made certain by the connexion with Erechtheus. On Erechtheus and his temple cf. viii. 55 n.

These offerings to the ‘lady’ and ‘king’ of the city of Athens from Epidaurus may be connected with the membership of both cities in the ancient Calaurian Amphictyony (Strabo, viii. 374).

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide References (3 total)
  • Commentary references from this page (3):
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2.30.4
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.17.2
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.32
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: