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There were two types of Greek dress: ‘the Ionic’, used by the natives of Asia Minor—Phrygians, Lycians, Carians, and the Greeks who came in contact with them; and the Dorian, of which the Corinthian is an unknown variety, the primitive national dress worn by almost all Greeks except the Ionians. The Ionian chiton was a long linen garment like a night-gown, with full sleeves to the elbow, requiring neither brooch nor pin. The Dorian was a square woollen cloth, with the upper edge folded down forming the diplois. It was simply folded round the body and fastened at the shoulder. The right side was thus left unprotected, unless this opening was, as in the Canephorae of the Erectheum, sewn up. (But in all cases a girdle was worn fastened round the loins, and under the girdle the dress could be so arranged as to overlap.) This Dorian chiton served for both outer and under garment, hence it is called ἱμάτιον (ch. 87. 2). There is great difficulty as to the dress of the Athenians in early days. Homer includes them among the Ἰάονες ἑλκεχίτωνες (Il. xiii. 685; cf. Thuc. iii. 104, Hom. hymn), and the men of Athens before the Persian wars wore long linen chitons (Thuc. i. 6) and fastened their hair with golden grasshoppers in the Ionian fashion. It is therefore hard to believe that while the men wore Ionian dress the women wore the Dorian, and that then each sex changed its style of dress. The evidence of monuments seems to show that in the early period of sculpture Ionic dress was common, but that after the Persian wars the Dorian dress prevailed. See P. Gardner, Greek Antiquities, p. 49 f.; Lady Evans, Greek Dress; and Studniczka, Altgriechische Tracht.

Κάειρα. For Carian influences on Ionia cf. i. 146 n.


ἀνατιθέναι. The offering would be made either before marriage (for which compare the offering of hair, iv. 34. 1 n.; Paus. i. 43. 4, ii. 32. 1; Frazer) or at child-birth (cf. ch. 86. 3 n.), with which may be compared the dedication of clothes to Artemis Brauronia at Athens (A. Mommsen, Feste, 456 f.; Schol. Callim. i. 77) and to Artemis at Syracuse (Anth. Pal. viii. 200 f.).

κέραμον. Attic pottery was known all over the Greek world for its excellence. Hence this embargo may have been a primitive measure of protection. So far as Argos is concerned it is supported by the results of the American excavations at the Heraeum. Many fragments were found of old varieties, such as the Mycenaean and Geometric wares, some of the later red-figure style prevalent after the Persian wars at Athens, but hardly any of the best period of the black-figure style or the early red-figure style of vases. In other words, the embargo was rigorous circ. 550-480 B. C. See J. C. Hoppin, Cl. R. xii, p. 86. For the use of pottery rather than silver, &c., in the service of the gods cf. Athen. xi. 482; Macrob. Sat. v. 21.

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hide References (4 total)
  • Commentary references from this page (4):
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.43.4
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.6
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.104
    • Homer, Iliad, 13.685
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